# Performance Analysis of Two-Hop OSTBC Transmission over Rayleigh Fading Channels

- Guangping Li
^{1}, - StevenD Blostein
^{2}Email author and - Jiayin Qin
^{3}

**2010**:649541

https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/649541

© Guangping Li et al. 2010

**Received: **19 March 2010

**Accepted: **26 September 2010

**Published: **29 September 2010

## Abstract

A two-hop amplify and forward (AF) relay system is considered where source and destination are each equipped with multiple antennas while the relay has a single antenna. Orthogonal space-time block coding (OSTBC) is employed at the source. New exact expressions for outage probability in Rayleigh fading as well as symbol error rate (SER) expressions for a variety of modulation schemes are derived. The diversity order of the system is evaluated. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the accuracy of the analyses presented. Results that can be extended to relay systems with a direct source-destination link are also highlighted. To put the results in context, the two-hop system performance is then compared to that of a MIMO point-to-point system. Finally, the new analysis is applied to evaluate two-hop system performance as a function of relay location.

## Keywords

## 1. Introduction

Through exploiting spatial diversity, it is well known that MIMO technology can improve the reliability of wireless communication links [1]. Orthogonal space-time block coding (OSTBC) is a key component of MIMO systems that has attracted tremendous attention. First, OSTBC does not require complicated feedback links to provide channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). Second, OSTBC methods enable maximum likelihood detection to be performed with low computational complexity [2]. As a result of its practicality, OSTBC has been incorporated into emerging MIMO standards [3].

While MIMO systems offer significant physical layer performance enhancements, a significant problem in initial wireless network deployments is obtaining adequate coverage. The concept of relaying signals through intermediate nodes has been shown to be effective at extending the coverage of networks in a power-efficient manner. In addition, very simple relaying systems have been shown to increase diversity through node collaboration. As a result, the provision for relaying has recently been adopted into recent standards [4]. This paper investigates the effect of simple relaying on MIMO system performance.

Previously, end-to-end performance of two-hop relay systems was studied in [5–7], including outage probability and average bit error rate (BER) in a variety of fading environments. However, in [5–7] all assume a single antenna at both source and destination. Recently, a two-hop amplify and forward (AF) relay system in which the source and destination are both equipped with multiple antennas while the relay has a single antenna appears in [8, 9]. In [8], an OSTBC strategy is employed at the source, and end-to-end average bit error rate (BER) was investigated. However, the method in [8] is only suitable for systems with the same numbers of antennas at the source and destination. Moreover, an exact expression for outage probability was not given, and the diversity order of the system was not evaluated analytically. In [10], system performance including outage probability and average SER is determined for the special case of multiple antennas at the source and a single antenna at the destination. Although the method used in [10] has been often used in the literature, it cannot be easily generalized to the case of multiple antennas at the destination.

In this paper, the same system model is assumed as in [8, 9]. First, exact expressions for system outage probability with both exact and ideal relay gain are derived for arbitrary antenna configurations at the source and destination. Exact average SER expressions for different modulation schemes are then derived by calculating the probability density function (PDF) and moment generation method (MGF). Generalizations of results to systems that include a direct link are also briefly indicated where applicable. The diversity order of the system is also evaluated. Monte Carlo simulations confirm the analytical results, compare performance between the proposed relaying system and a MIMO point-to-point system as well as evaluate the two-hop system performance as a function of relay location.

## 2. System Model

*fixed*or

*variable*. In this paper, variable relay gain is considered. Relay gains can be further classified as

*exact*or

*ideal*. We denote as the exact relay gain, where and are average power constraints at the source and relay, respectively. If we ignore the noise at the relay, which is denoted as the ideal relay gain [5] and is amenable to mathematical manipulation. As in most of the literature, the ideal relay gain is used to compute exact average SERs of the proposed system in this paper. Later, it will be observed from simulations that the ideal relay gain provides a tight lower bound on outage probability and average SER in the case of medium-to-high SNR. Substituting into (2) leads to the received signal at the destination given by

Using maximum likelihood (ML) detection of OSTBCs for the case of spatially colored noise given in [11], the received SNR is obtained as follows.

Theorem 1.

where , , , , and denotes the OSTBC code rate.

Proof.

Using the fact that and in OSTBCs, substituting the exact relay gain into (11) yields (4), and substituting the ideal relay gain into (11) yields (5).

Remark 2.

Using maximal ratio combining (MRC) at the destination, Theorem 1 can be generalized to the case of relay systems with a direct link by including a term corresponding to the SNR of the direct link that increases the SNR by , where is the Rayleigh fading complex channel gain matrix from source to destination and denotes the received noise variance during the source-to-destination time slot. It is assumed that relay-to-destination communication occurs in a separate second time slot, that is, half-duplex communication.

## 3. Outage Probability

In this section, analytical expressions for outage probability are derived.

Theorem 3.

Proof.

Using [15, Equation (3.324)], substituting into (20), and through straightforward mathematical manipulations (12) with and (13) with are yielded.

## 4. Exact Average SER Expressions for Different Modulation Schemes

In this section, exact SER expressions for different modulation schemes are derived assuming an ideal relay gain.

(i)First, we consider modulation schemes that have conditional SER [16], for example, BPSK, BFSK, and MPAM.

where is the Gauss hypergeometric function, for binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), for binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK), and for M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (MPAM).

(ii)Next, we consider the modulation schemes of MPSK and MQAM.

The moment generation function (MGF) of is given by the following theorem.

Theorem 4.

Before proving Theorem 4, the probability density function (PDF) of is first presented in the following lemma.

Lemma 5.

Proof of Lemma 5.

Differentiating (13), where with respect to and using the expression for the modified Bessel function derivative in [15, Equation (8.486.12)]yield (28).

Proof of Theorem 4.

From Lemma 5, taking the Laplace transform of (28) and using [15, Equation (6.621.3)] yields (27).

Finally, from Theorem 4, substituting MGF (27) for the ideal relay gain into (25) and (26), respectively, we obtain exact average SER expressions for MPSK and MQAM.

Remark 6.

The SER expressions for MPSK and MQAM can straightforwardly be generalized to a system with a direct link. The MGF would be multiplied by the factor , where is the rate parameter of the exponentially distributed source-to-destination gain .

## 5. Diversity Order Analysis

Theorem 7.

The diversity order of a two-hop AF relay system is when an OSTBC strategy is employed at the source.

Proof.

Combining (32) and (34), we conclude that the diversity order is .

## 6. Numerical Results and Conclusions

Figure 3 compares Monte Carlo simulations and analytical results for modulations with conditional SER including BPSK, BFSK, and 4 PAM as well as with QPSK and 16 QAM. Clearly, the simulations very closely match the analyses. Again, the ideal relay gain provides a tight lower bound on average SER even in the case of medium SNR.

Figure 4 shows average SER with BPSK modulation for different antenna configurations. Here, the diversity order can be observed as the slope of the average SER curve. In accordance with Theorem 7, it is observed that the diversity order cannot be improved through simply adding transmit or receive antennas for the case of equal numbers of source and destination antennas.

Specifically, the relay is assumed to be placed halfway between the source and destination in Figure 5. Figure 5 shows how system performance trades off between the relaying and MIMO point-to-point systems. As expected, the results clearly show that the diversity order of the MIMO point-to-point system, which is known to be , is larger than that of the relaying system for the same antenna configuration at both source and destination. In other words, as transmit SNR increases, the MIMO point-to-point system has an advantage over the relaying system. However, it can also be observed that the relaying system outperforms the MIMO point-to-point system in lower SNR regimes: for the case of , the relay system outperforms point-to-point MIMO systems at transmit SNRs below 6 dB. Adding a transmit antenna to the MIMO system lowers this threshold to -1 dB, while at the same time, the code rate for OSTBCs becomes 3/4. On the other hand, adding a receive antenna to the MIMO system lowers this threshold to -4 dB. Of course, the MIMO point-to-point system would be able to achieve similar system performance gain by adding transmit or receive antennas, but this would increase complexity.

## 7. Conclusions

The performance of a MIMO system using OSTBC transmission that encounters a simple relay in a two-hop AF configuration has been analyzed, including outage probability, SER and diversity order. These results extend those found in [8, 10]. Monte Carlo simulations are found to agree closely with the analyses. In fact, the numerical results indicate that tight lower bounds are obtainable using the ideal relay gain approximation, even at SNRs as low as 5–8 dB. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations also compare system performance between the proposed relaying system and a MIMO point-point system and assess performance as a function of location of the relay between the source and destination.

## Declarations

### Acknowlegment

This paper was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery (Grant no. 41731) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant no. 10451009001004407).

## Authors’ Affiliations

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## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.