Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Mutual Image-Based Authentication Framework with JPEG2000 in Wireless Environment

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20062006:073685

  • Received: 30 September 2005
  • Accepted: 13 June 2006
  • Published:


Currently, together with the development of wireless connectivity, the need for a reliable and user-friendly authentication system becomes always more important. New applications, as e-commerce or home banking, require a strong level of protection, allowing for verification of legitimate users' identity and enabling the user to distinguis trusted servers from shadow ones. A novel framework for image-based authentication (IBA) is then proposed and evaluated. In order to provide mutual authentication, the proposed method integrates an IBA password technique with a challenge-response scheme based on a shared secret key for image scrambling. The wireless environment is mainly addressed by the proposed system, which tries to overcome the severe constraints on security, data transmission capability, and user friendliness imposed by such environment. In order to achieve such results, the system offers a strong solution for authentication, taking into account usability and avoiding the need for hardware upgrades. Data and application scalability is provided through the JPEG2000 standard and JPIP framework.


  • Data Transmission
  • Strong Solution
  • Mutual Authentication
  • Wireless Environment
  • Application Scalability


Authors’ Affiliations

MCLab, Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, 09123, Italy


  1. Paivio A, Rogers TB, Smythe PC: Why are pictures easier to recall than words? Psychonomic Science 1968,11(4):137-138.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Shepard RN: Recognition memory for words, sentences, and pictures. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 1967, 6: 156-163. 10.1016/S0022-5371(67)80067-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Weinshall D, Kirkpatrick S: Passwords you'll never forget, but can't recall. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '04), April 2004, Vienna, Austria 1399-1402.Google Scholar
  4. Dhamija R, Perrig A: Déjà Vu: a user study using images for authentication. Proceedings of the 9th Usenix Security Symposium, August 2000, Denver, Colo, USA 45-58.Google Scholar
  5. Software and Solutions from Cologne,
  6. Jansen W, Gavrila S, Korolev V, Ayers R, Swanstrom R: Picture password: a visual login technique for mobile devices. In Tech. Rep. IR 7030. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md, USA; July 2003.Google Scholar
  7. Takada T, Koike H: Awase-E: image-based authentication for mobile phones using user's favorite images. In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, September 2003, Udine, Italy. Springer; 347-351.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Wegner DM, Quillian F, Houston CE: Memories out of order: thought suppression and the disturbance of sequence memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1996,71(4):680-691.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Naor M, Pinkas B: Visual authentication and identification. In Advances in Cryptology (Crypto '97). Edited by: Kaliski B. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1997:322-336.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Naor M, Shamir A: Visual cryptography. In Advances in Cryptology (EuroCrypt '94). Edited by: De Santis A. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1995:1-12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Kharrazi M, Sencar HT, Memon N: Image Steganography: Concepts and Practice, Lecture Note Series. Institute for Mathematical Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore; 2004.Google Scholar
  12. Majstor F: WLAN security threats & solutions. Proceedings of the 28th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks, October 2003, Brussels, Belgium 650.Google Scholar
  13. Shunman W, Ran T, Yue W, Ji Z: WLAN and it's security problems. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT '03), August 2003, Chengdu, China 241-244.Google Scholar
  14. ANSI/IEEE Std 802.11, 1999 Edition (R2003), IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Network - Specific Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, 1999Google Scholar
  15. IEEE Std 802.11i-2004, IEEE Standard for Information Technology- Telecommunications and information exchange between systems- Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 6: Medium Access Control (MAC) Security Enhancements, 2004Google Scholar
  16. IEEE Std 802.1X-2001, IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks Port-Based Network Access Control, 2001Google Scholar
  17. JPEG 2000 image coding system—Part 1: Core Coding System, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 15444-1Google Scholar
  18. Ebrahimi T, Christopoulos C, Lee, Eds DT: Special issue on JPEG2000. Signal Processing: Image Communication 2002.,17(1):Google Scholar
  19. Ebrahimi T, Giusto, Eds DD: Special section on JPEG2000 digital imaging. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 2003,49(4):771-888. 10.1109/TCE.2003.1261150View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. JPEG 2000 image coding system—Part 9: Interactivity tools, APIs and protocols, ITU-T Recommendation T.808, ISO/IEC 15444-9, July 2004Google Scholar
  21. Perra C, Giusto DD: A framework for image based authentication. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '05), March 2005, Philadelphia, Pa, USA 2: 521-524.Google Scholar
  22. Joo KS, Bose T: Two-dimensional periodically shift variant digital filters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1996,6(1):97-107. 10.1109/76.486424View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Sun YS, Shyu HC:Image scrambling through a fractional composite domain. Electronics Letters 2001,37(11):685-696. 10.1049/el:20010443View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Han Z, Feng WX, Hui LZ, Hai LD, Chou LY: A new image encryption algorithm based on chaos system. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics, Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing, October 2003, Changsha, China 778-782.Google Scholar
  25. Zou J, Ward RK, Qi D: The generalized fibonacci transformations and application to image scrambling. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP '04), May 2004, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 3: 385-388.Google Scholar
  26. Van De Ville D, Philips W, Van De Walle R, Lemahieu I: Image scrambling without bandwidth expansion. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2004,14(6):892-897. 10.1109/TCSVT.2004.828325MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Lian S, Sun J, Wang Z: A novel image encryption scheme based-on JPEG encoding. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Visualization, July 2004, London, UK 8: 217-220.Google Scholar
  28. Wu H, Ma D: Efficient and secure encryption schemes for JPEG2000. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP '04), May 2004, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 5: 869-872.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  29. Watanabe O, Nakazaki A, Kiya H: A fast image-scramble method using public-key encryption allowing backward compatibility with JPEG2000. Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '04), October 2004, Singapore, Republic of Singapore 2: 3435-3438.Google Scholar
  30. JPEG 2000 image coding system—Part 8: JPSEC Final Committee Draft—Version 1.0, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 N 3480, November 2004Google Scholar
  31. Matsumoto M, Nishimura T: Mersenne twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudo-random number generator. ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation 1998,8(1):3-30. 10.1145/272991.272995MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar


© G. Ginesu et al. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.