Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Spectral Efficiency of CDMA Downlink Cellular Networks with Matched Filter

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20062006:074081

Received: 20 May 2005

Accepted: 8 December 2005

Published: 13 March 2006


In this contribution, the performance of a downlink code division multiple access (CDMA) system with orthogonal spreading and multicell interference is analyzed. A useful framework is provided in order to determine the optimal base station coverage for wireless frequency selective channels with dense networks where each user is equipped with a matched filter. Using asymptotic arguments, explicit expressions of the spectral efficiency are obtained and provide a simple expression of the network spectral efficiency based only on a few meaningful parameters. Contrarily to a common misconception which asserts that to increase spectral efficiency in a CDMA network, one has to increase the number of cells, we show that, depending on the path loss and the fading channel statistics, the code orthogonal gain (due to the synchronization of all the users at the base station) can compensate and even compete in some cases with the drawbacks due to intercell interference. The results are especially realistic and useful for the design of dense networks.


  • Fading Channel
  • Dense Network
  • Path Loss
  • Spectral Efficiency
  • Code Division Multiple Access


Authors’ Affiliations

MAESTRO, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, Sophia Antipolis, France
Mobile Communications Group, Institut Eurécom, Sophia Antipolis, France


  1. Zaidel BM, Shamai S, Verdu S: Multicell uplink spectral efficiency of coded DS-CDMA with random signatures. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2001,19(8):1556-1569. 10.1109/49.942517View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Sendonaris A, Veeravalli V: The capacity-coverage tradeoff in CDMA systems with soft handoff. Proceedings of the 31st Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, November 1997, Pacific Grove, Calif, USA 1: 625-629.Google Scholar
  3. Kong N, Milstein LB: Error probability of multicell CDMA over frequency selective fading channels with power control error. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1999,47(4):608-617. 10.1109/26.764934View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Tonguz OK, Wang MM: Cellular CDMA networks impaired by Rayleigh fading: system performance with power control. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1994,43(3, part 1):515-527. 10.1109/25.312795View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Gilhousen KS, Jacobs IM, Padovani R, Viterbi AJ, Weaver LA Jr., Wheatley CE III: On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1991,40(2):303-312. 10.1109/25.289411View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Corazza GE, De Maio G, Vatalaro F: CDMA cellular systems performance with fading, shadowing, and imperfect power control . IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1998,47(2):450-459. 10.1109/25.669083View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim DK, Adachi F: Theoretical analysis of reverse link capacity for an SIR-based power-controlled cellular CDMA system in a multipath fading environment. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2001,50(2):452-464. 10.1109/25.923057View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Zhang J, Aalo V: Performance analysis of a multicell DS-CDMA system with base station diversity. IEE Proceedings-Communications 2001,148(2):112-118. 10.1049/ip-com:20010267View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Li Z, Latva-Aho M: Performance of a multicell MC-CDMA system with power control errors in Nakagami fading channels. IEICE Transactions on Communications 2003,E86-B(9):2795-2798.Google Scholar
  10. Hiai F, Petz D: The Semicircle Law, Free Random Variables and Entropy, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs. Volume 77. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, USA; 2000.MATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Tse DNC, Hanly SV: Linear multiuser receivers: effective interference, effective bandwidth and user capacity. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1999,45(2):641-657. 10.1109/18.749008MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Shamai S, Verdu S: The impact of frequency-flat fading on the spectral efficiency of CDMA. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2001,47(4):1302-1327. 10.1109/18.923717MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Debbah M, Hachem W, Loubaton P, de Courville M: MMSE analysis of certain large isometric random precoded systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2003,49(5):1293-1311. 10.1109/TIT.2003.810641MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Debbah M, Müller RR: MIMO channel modeling and the principle of maximum entropy. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2005,51(5):1667-1690. 10.1109/TIT.2005.846388View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. Gray RM: Toeplitz and Circulant Matrices. 1st edition. Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif, USA; 1977.Google Scholar
  16. Franceschetti M, Bruck J, Schulman LJ: A random walk model of wave propagation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 2004,52(5):1304-1317. 10.1109/TAP.2004.827540View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Verdu S, Shamai S: Spectral efficiency of CDMA with random spreading. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1999,45(2):622-640. 10.1109/18.749007MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Guo D, Verdu S, Rasmussen LK: Asymptotic normality of linear multiuser receiver outputs. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2002,48(12):3080-3095. 10.1109/TIT.2002.805066MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonneau N, Debbah M, Altman E, Caire G: Spectral efficiency of CDMA uplink cellular networks. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '05), March 2005, Philadelphia, Pa, USA 5: 821-824.Google Scholar


© Nicolas Bonneau et al. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.