Open Access

Energy Efficient AODV Routing in CDMA Ad Hoc Networks Using Beamforming

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20062006:076709

https://doi.org/10.1155/WCN/2006/76709

Received: 17 July 2005

Accepted: 18 April 2006

Published: 27 June 2006

Abstract

We propose an energy aware on-demand routing protocol for CDMA mobile ad hoc networks, for which improvements in the energy consumption are realized by both introducing an energy-based routing measure and by enhancing the physical layer performance using beamforming. Exploiting the cross-layer interactions between the network and the physical layer leads to a significant improvement in the energy efficiency compared with the traditional AODV protocol, and provides an alternative solution of link breakage detection in traditional AODV protocol. Several performance measures are considered for evaluating the network performance, such as data energy consumption, latency, and overhead energy consumption. An optimum SIR threshold range is determined experimentally for various implementation scenarios.

[123456789101112131415161718]

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology

References

  1. Perkins CEAd hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing. RFC 3561, IETF Network Working Group, July 1998Google Scholar
  2. Kullberg T: Performance of the ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol. HUT T-110.551 Helsinki University of Technology Seminar on Internetworking, April 2004, Sjökulla, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Broch J, Maltz DA, Johnson DB, Hu Y-C, Jetcheva J: A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols. Proceedings of the 4th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom '98), October 1998, Dallas, Tex, USA 85-97.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Comaniciu C, Poor HV: QoS provisioning for wireless ad hoc data networks. Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC '03), December 2003, Maui, Hawaii, USA 1: 92-97.Google Scholar
  5. Tragoudas S, Dimitrova S: Routing with energy consideration in mobile ad-hoc networks. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '00), September 2000, Chicago, Ill, USA 3: 1258-1261.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Kim D, Garcia-Luna-Aceves JJ, Obraczka K, Cano J, Manzoni P: Power-aware routing based on the energy drain rate for mobile ad hoc networks. Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN '02), October 2002, Miami, Fla, USA 565-569.Google Scholar
  7. Cruz RL, Santhanam AV: Optimal routing, link scheduling, and power control in multi-hop wireless networks. Proceedings of 22nd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '03), March–April 2003, San Francisco, Calif, USA 1: 702-711.Google Scholar
  8. Ramanathan R: On the performance of ad hoc networks with beamforming antennas. Proceedings of ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHoc '01), October 2001, Long Beach, Calif, USA 95-105.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Zander J: Slotted ALOHA multihop packet radio networks with directional antennas. Electronics Letters 1990,26(25):2098-2100. 10.1049/el:19901351View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Ko YB, Shankarkumar V, Vaidya NH: Medium access control protocols using directional antennas in ad hoc networks. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '00), March 2000, Tel Aviv, Israel 1: 13-21.Google Scholar
  11. Ramakrishna D, Mandayam NB, Yates RD: Subspace-based SIR estimation for CDMA cellular systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2000,49(5):1732-1742. 10.1109/25.892578View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Goodman DJ, Mandayam NB: Power control for wireless data. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine 2000,7(2):48-54. 10.1109/98.839331View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Korakis T, Jakllari G, Tassiulas L: A MAC protocol for full exploitation of directional antennas in ad hoc wireless networks. Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, June 2003, Annapolis, Md, USA 98-107.Google Scholar
  14. Schmidt R: A signal subspace approach to multiple emitter location and spectral estimation, Ph.D. Dissertation. Stanford University, Stanford, Calif, USA; 1981.Google Scholar
  15. Shahbazpanahi S, Valaee S, Bastani MH: Distributed source localization using ESPRIT algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 2001,49(10):2169-2178. 10.1109/78.950773View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Capkun S, Hamdi M, Hubaux J: GPS-free positioning in mobile ad-hoc networks. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS '01), January 2001, Maui, Hawaii, USA 9: 9008.Google Scholar
  17. http://www.omnetpp.org
  18. Nasipuri A, Mandava J, Manchala H, Hiromoto RE: On-demand routing using directionl antennas in mobile ad hoc networks. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '00), September 2000, Chicago, Ill, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© N. Nie and C. Comaniciu. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.