Skip to main content


We’d like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest.

Performance Evaluation of Important Ad Hoc Network Protocols


A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of specific infrastructureless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without any centralized administration. A user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which include dynamic source routing (DSR), ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, and temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA). Although considerable amount of simulation work has been done to measure the performance of these routing protocols, due to the constant changing nature of these protocols, a new performance evaluation is essential. Accordingly, in this paper, we analyze the performance differentials to compare the above-mentioned commonly used ad hoc network routing protocols. We also analyzed the performance over varying loads for each of these protocols using OPNET Modeler 10.5. Our findings show that for specific differentials, TORA shows better performance over the two on-demand protocols, that is, DSR and AODV. Our findings are expected to lead to further performance improvements of various ad hoc networks in the future.



  1. [1]

    Celebi E: Performance evaluation of wireless multi-hop ad-hoc network routing protocols.

  2. [2]

    Broch J, Maltz DA, Johnson DB, Hu YC, Jetcheva J: A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad-hoc network routing protocols. Proceedings of the 4th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Network (MobiCom '98), October 1998, Dallas, Tex, USA 85–97.

  3. [3]

    Park VD, Corson MS: A highly adaptive distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless network. Proceedings of 16th IEEE Conference on Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '97), April 1997, Kobe, Japan 3: 1405–1413.

  4. [4]

    Park VD, Corson S: Temporarily-ordered routing algorithm (TORA) version 1 functional specification. corson-draft-ietf-manet.tora-spec-00.txt, IETF, Internet draft, 1997

  5. [5]

    Corson MS, Papademetriou S, Papadopolous P, Park VD, Qayyum A: An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imep-spec01.txt, August 1998

  6. [6]

    Park V, Corson SInternet draft, March 2004,

  7. [7]

    Johnson DB, Maltz DA: Dynamic source routing in ad-hoc wireless networks. In Mobile Computing. Edited by: Imielinski T, Korth H. Kluwer Academic, Hingham, Mass, USA; 1996:153–181. chapter 5

  8. [8]

    Johnson DB, Maltz DA: Protocols for adaptive wireless and mobile computing. IEEE Personal Communications 1996.,3(1):

  9. [9]

    Larsson T, Hedman N: Routing protocols in wireless ad-hoc network—a simulation study. Lulea University of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 1998

  10. [10]

    Bertsekas D, Gallager R: Data Network. 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 1992.

  11. [11]

    Hoebeke J, Latre B, Moerman I, Dhoedt B, Demeester P: Routing in mobile ad-hoc networks. March 2004,

  12. [12]

    Perkins C, Das S: Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing. Network Working Group, RFC: 3561, July 2003,

  13. [13]

    Perkins CE, Bhagwat P: Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers. Proceedings of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communications (SIGCOM '94), August-September 1994, London, UK 24: 234–244.

  14. [14]

    Das SR, Castaneda R, Yan J, Sengupta R: Comparative performance evaluation of routing protocols for mobile, ad hoc networks. Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (IC3N '98), October 1998, Lafayette, La, USA 153–161.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to S Ahmed.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ahmed, S., Alam, M. Performance Evaluation of Important Ad Hoc Network Protocols. J Wireless Com Network 2006, 078645 (2006).

Download citation


  • Information System
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Performance Differential
  • Performance Improvement
  • Mobile Node