- Open Access
Fingerprint indoor positioning algorithm based on affinity propagation clustering
© Tian et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 26 July 2013
Accepted: 15 November 2013
Published: 1 December 2013
Recently, the fingerprint-based wireless local area network (WLAN) positioning has gained significant interest. A probability distribution-aided indoor positioning algorithm based on the affinity propagation clustering is proposed. Different from the conventional fingerprint-based WLAN positioning algorithms, the paper first utilizes the affinity propagation clustering to minimize the searching space of reference points (RPs). Then, we introduce the probability distribution-aided positioning algorithm to obtain the target's refined position. Furthermore, because the affinity clustering can effectively lead to a reduction of the computational cost for the RP searching which is involved in the probability distribution-aided positioning algorithm, the proposed algorithm can lower the difficulty and minimize the power consumption when estimating the user's position. Experimental results conducted in the real environments show that our proposed algorithm will significantly improve the performance of the probability distribution-aided positioning algorithm in both the positioning accuracy and real-time ability.
In recent decade, the indoor wireless local area network (WLAN) positioning technology has caught significant attention by a variety of universities and research institutes [1–3]. Among them, the time of arrival (ToA), angle of arrival (AoA), and received signal strength (RSS) are the three most representative measurements for the position estimation. Compared to the ToA and AoA measurements, the RSS can be more easily measured without any additional special hardware devices in current open public WLAN networks. However, the most significant challenge of the RSS readings is about the irregular variations of RSS due to the variable radio channel attenuation, signal shadowing, multi-path interference, and even the variations of indoor temperature .
In general, two approaches are used by the existing WLAN positioning techniques for position estimation. One effective solution is the k-nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm to estimate the mobile user's position at the centroid of the K closest neighbors. The closest neighbors are defined as the reference points (RPs) which have the smallest RSS distance to the on-line new collected RSS readings . The kNN algorithm can be easily implemented by the current widely existing WLAN infrastructures, while the accuracy is limited. Another alternative approach is based on the statistical analysis on the probabilities of each candidate RP to calculate the confidence probability of each RP to be selected as the mobile user's estimated position [6, 7].
RSS clustering by the measures of similarities between the RSS readings can be suggested as a critical step for the fingerprint-based WLAN positioning. Performing the RSS clustering prior to the positioning process has two main advantages. First, it helps to mitigate the degradation on the positioning accuracy caused by the RSS deviations and potential outlier readings. Second, it is beneficial to be used to reduce the computation cost since only the cluster centers are considered for the positioning .
In this paper, we present a new accurate and scalable positioning algorithm to estimate the user's position with low computation cost in a public WLAN environment. Our algorithm consists of two steps: (1) the coarse positioning step is used to obtain the cluster which the user belongs to; and (2) the fine positioning step is utilized to calculate the accurate coordinates of the user.
The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides some related work on the fingerprint indoor positioning algorithms. Section 3 discusses the overall structure of our algorithm. Sections 4 addresses the detailed steps of the off-line affinity propagation, on-line cluster matching-based coarse positioning, and probability distribution-aided fine positioning, respectively. The performance of our proposed algorithm is verified in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 concludes this paper.
2 Related work
The basic idea of probabilistic approach is to pre-store the RSS distribution with respect to each hearable AP into a radio map and use it to conduct the position estimation. As an example, the Horus system  estimates the user's position at the location which has the largest posterior probability by the Bayesian inference . Although the Bayesian inference achieves high positioning accuracy, the recording of RSS distributions at RPs is time consuming.
Due to the significant computation cost involved in the previously mentioned approaches, the researchers begin to pay more attention to the machine learning approach (e.g., the artificial neural network [13, 14], support vector machine , and fuzzy logic [16, 17]) to realize the fingerprint positioning. The most important advantage of the machine learning approach is about the real-time ability of inferring the user's coordinates in the on-line phase. However, most of the current machine learning positioning systems is designed for a small-scale area (e.g., approximately 600 m2), and meanwhile, the positioning accuracy will significantly rely on the training process in the off-line phase.
To improve the positioning accuracy further, we always consider about the fingerprint processing, such as the RSS clustering and dimension reduction. A conventional way to the RSS clustering is to select a set of cluster centers to minimize the sum of the squared distances between the RSS readings and their corresponding centers. As a representative, the widely used k-means clustering begins with an initial set of randomly selected centers and then iteratively refines this set to decrease the sum of the squares distances. However, the k-means clustering is quite sensitive to the initial selection of centers. In this case, it is always performed in several times and with different initial centers to find the best clustering results. Therefore, the k-means clustering is limited in practical use due to the arbitrary selection of the initial cluster centers. To solve this problem, the affinity propagation clustering creates the centers and the corresponding clusters based on the constant exchanging of reading similarities between the RPs . With this idea, the messages will be exchanged between RPs until a high-quality set of centers and corresponding clusters gradually emerge.
3 Overall structure of proposed positioning algorithm
In the off-line phase, we first hold the WLAN mobile device to collect the RSS readings from the hearable APs to construct the radio map in the area of interest. During the construction of the radio map Ψ (see details below), the corresponding physical coordinates of RPs should also be stored. Then, the affinity propagation clustering is conducted in the radio map to cluster the raw RPs.
In the on-line phase, the first step is to use the mobile device to collect the on-line new RSS readings. Then, the coarse positioning will be used before the fine positioning for the reasons of reducing the on-line computation cost and improving the accuracy performance of the probability distribution-aided positioning algorithm.
where is the average of RSS readings from AP i at RP j over the time domain. L and N are the number of access points (APs) and RPs, respectively. Each column of the radio map Ψ (i.e., , j = 1, 2, …, N) represents a sequence of RSS readings at a RP j . The superscript ‘T’ denotes the transposition operation.
4 Detailed steps of proposed positioning algorithm
Different from the conventional K-means clustering , the basic idea of our proposed affinity propagation clustering algorithm is to use the preference (p) to label the RPs and the RPs with larger preference are more likely to be selected as the cluster centers. Our proposed algorithm outperforms the K-means clustering because of the initialization-independent property and better selection of cluster centers .
Furthermore, there are two types of messages transmitted among the RPs for the affinity propagation clustering: (1) responsible message r(i, j) which transmits the information about the clustering center; and (2) availability message a(i, j) which informs the attachment relations between the RPs and clusters.
For the fine positioning, we will calculate the matching probability between the on-line new collected RSS readings and the pre-stored fingerprints in radio map. By assuming the Gaussian probability distribution of RSS readings at each RP, the RSS values should obey the normal distribution N(μ, σ2) .
where X is defined as the set of RSS readings. Based on the statistical property of the maximum likelihood estimation μ* and σ*2, we can approximately recognize μ* as the RSS fingerprint at each RP. With this idea, the mean of RSS reading e i and the corresponding variance d i from each hearable AP AP i should be calculated for the construction of radio map in the off-line phase.
5 Experimental results
5.1 Clustering results
5.2 Positioning results
Results of statistical positioning errors
K-means + Knn
K-means + Probability Distribution
Affinity Propagation + Knn
5.3 Error analysis
Based on the previous experimental results which are conducted in a public indoor WLAN environment, we can observe that: (1) our proposed probability distribution-aided positioning algorithm has reduced the mean of errors by 34.02%, 28.3%, and 16.17%, respectively compared to the K-means + Knn, K-means + Probability Distribution, and Affinity Propagation + Knn positioning algorithms; and (2) our proposed algorithm has also increased the confidence probability of errors within 3 m to 80.49% which is significantly larger than the probabilities 43.9%, 62.2%, and 65.85% achieved by the K-means + Knn, K-means + Probability Distribution, and Affinity Propagation + Knn positioning algorithms.
This paper proposes a new probability distribution-aided indoor positioning algorithm based on affinity propagation clustering. Compared with the conventional indoor fingerprint-based positioning algorithms, the positioning search space and computing cost are reduced. Because the affinity propagation clustering can be recognized as a preprocessing of the conventional fingerprint-based positioning algorithms, the proposed method can also be applied to the other fingerprint-based wireless positioning systems, like the RFID and mobile cellular network. However, due to the significant dependence on the RSS distributions and deployment of RPs, future research is required to optimize the layout of the APs and fingerprint modification for improving the positioning accuracy.
This work was supported in part by the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (2012ZX03006-002(3)), National Natural Science Foundation of China (61301126), Fundamental and Frontier Research Project of Chongqing (cstc2013jcyjA40032, cstc2013jcyjA40034 and cstc2013jcyjA40041), Special Fund of Chongqing Key Laboratory (CSTC), Science and Technology Project of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (KJ130528), Startup Foundation for Doctors of CQUPT (A2012-33), and Science Foundation for Young Scientists of CQUPT (A2012-77).
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