Variable packet splitting transmission in multi-relay cooperative communications with DF and DAF for SC-FDMA
© Ida et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 31 July 2012
Accepted: 18 February 2013
Published: 11 March 2013
In recent years, cooperative communications are widely studied. Cooperative communications can obtain the space diversity as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In cooperative communications, the relay method is important as decode-and-forward (DF) and decode-amplify-forward (DAF). The multi-relay cooperative communications can improve the system performance. In the multi-relay cooperative communications, the optimum packet splitting method is effective. Moreover, the multi-relay cooperative communications can more improve the system performance by using the power allocation (PA). However, the PA method requires large feedback information (FBI). To solve this problem, in this article, we propose the optimum packet splitting method based on the time domain channel state information (CSI) in the multi-relay cooperative communication with DF and DAF.
As the next generation standard of the mobile communications, a long-term evolution (LTE)-Advanced is standardized . LTE-Advanced supports broadband data services with the maximum transmission rate of about 0.1–1 Gbps. In a LTE-Advanced, single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) has been adopt in the uplink communication, and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) has been adopt in the downlink communication . SC-FDMA can achieve a low peak average power ratio (PAPR) compared with OFDMA [3–5]. Since a low PAPR of SC-FDMA can reduce the cost and the power consumption of communication, SC-FDMA is suitable transmission method for the uplink communication.
In recent years, cooperative communications are widely studied [6–9]. Cooperative communications use the relay node except the source and destination nodes. By using the relay node, cooperative communications can obtain the space diversity as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. For the problem of PAPR, the signals of each antenna have to process in the same device for MIMO systems. As a result, MIMO systems increase PAPR. On the other hand, the signals process in the independent device as the relay node for cooperative communications. Therefore, cooperative communications mitigate the problem of PAPR compared with MIMO systems [10, 11]. In cooperative communications, the relay method is important as amplify-and-forward (AF), decode-and-forward (DF), and decode-amplify-forward (DAF) [12–21]. AF is the simplest method. This is because it is only adjust the amplitude of the signal in the relay node [12–14]. However, since AF is poor in a frequency selective fading environment, the system performance is significantly degraded. To solve this problem, DF and DAF have been proposed [15–21]. DF and DAF detect the received signal in the relay node. As a result, DF and DAF are strong in a frequency selective fading environment. For the deference of DF and DAF, DF detects the received signal by using the hard decision [15, 16]. On the other hand, DAF detects the received signal by using the soft decision [17–21]. In this article, we use DF and DAF, and compare their performances.
In cooperative communications, the multi-relay cooperative communications have been proposed . This system can improve the system performance to obtain more strong diversity by using several relay nodes. However, if the channel condition of relays is bad, the system performance is degraded. To solve this problem, the optimum packet splitting has been proposed in MIMO systems . The optimum packet splitting method splits the packet by considering the channel condition and sends from each transmit antenna. As a result, the optimum packet splitting method can improve the system performance. However, the optimum packet splitting is not considered in the multi-relay cooperative communications. Therefore, in this article, we propose the optimum packet splitting in the multi-relay cooperative communication systems. Cooperative communications can improve the system performance by using the power allocation (PA) [24–28]. This method is also effective in the multi-relay cooperative communications . Therefore,  has adopt the waterfilling power allocation (WF/PA) method. The WF/PA method mitigates the deep faded channel by using the optimum power [24–27]. However, the PA method requires large feedback information (FBI) since it has to feedback the channel state information (CSI) of each sampling point in a frequency domain. To solve these problems, in this article, we propose the optimum packet splitting method based on the time domain CSI in the multi-relay cooperative communication with DF and DAF.
Common notations that E|·|, (·)∗ denote the ensemble average operation, a complex conjugate, respectively.
In this article, we assume the multi-relay cooperative communications as shown in Figure 1. Here, we define the notation as follows.
SD is the link between the source and destination nodes.
SR is the link between the source and relay nodes.
RD is the link between the relay and destination nodes.
SRD is the link between the source, relay, and destination nodes.
where T g is the GI length.
where ωn,s r(k) is the MMSE weight. After the detection, the detected signal is also modulated and transmits to the destination node by using decode-and-forward (DF) or decode-amplify-forward (DAF).
where is the noise power .
Proposed variable splitting method
In this section, we explain the waterfilling power allocation (WF/PA) method and the proposed variable splitting method.
Waterfilling power allocation (WF/PA)
From Equation (15), the WF/PA method can improve the system performance. However, the WF/PA method requires large feedback information (FBI). To mitigate this problem, we propose the variable splitting method.
Proposed variable splitting method
The proposed variable splitting method is performed based on the time domain CSI. For the time domain CSI, the amplitudes are constant. From this characteristic, since FBI of the proposed method becomes only one, the proposed method can reduce FBI compared with the WF/PA method.
Computer simulation results
2 μ s
Number of data symbols
Number of sampling points
Number of relay nodes
6 sample times
2 paths Rayleigh fading
In this article, we have proposed the variable packet splitting method in the multi-relay cooperative communications with DF and DAF. The proposed method obtains the space diversity by using the multi-relay cooperative communications. Moreover, since the proposed method uses the error correcting code and interleaving, obtains also the coding gain. However, if the channel condition of relays is bad, the system performance is degraded. Therefore, the proposed method splits the packet to obtain the space and coding gains. Moreover, the proposed method uses the selection parameters α and γ to obtain the maximum gains. As a result, the proposed method obtains the maximum coding gain due to the space diversity. From the simulation results, the proposed method has decided the optimum value of selection parameters α and γ, and achieved the best BER performance. Moreover, the proposed method of DAF has shown the good BER performance compared with DF.
- Abeta S: Toward LTE commerical launch and future plan for LTE enhancements (LTE-Advanced). In Proc. of 12th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS). Singapore; 2010:146-150.Google Scholar
- Noune M, Nix A: Frequency-domain precoding for single carrier frequency-division multiple access. IEEE Commun. Mag 2009, 47(6):68-74.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adachi F, Tomeba H, Takeda K: Frequency-domain equalization for broadband single-carrier multiple access. IEICE Trans. Commun 2009, E92-B(5):1441-1456. 10.1587/transcom.E92.B.1441View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luo X, Gaal P, Chen W, Zhang X, Montojo J: Transmit diversity scheme over single SC-FDM symbol for LTE-Advanced. In Proc. of 2009 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM). Hawaii, USA: Honolulu; 2009:1-6.Google Scholar
- Zhang C, Wang Z, Yang Z, Wang J, Song J: Frequency domain decision feedback equalization for uplink SC-FDMA. IEEE Trans. Broadcast 2010, 56(2):253-257.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laneman JN, Tse DNC, Wornell GW: Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: efficient protocols and outage behavior. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 2004, 50(12):3062-3080. 10.1109/TIT.2004.838089MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Florea AA, Gacanin H, Adachi F: Performance comparison of cooperative OFDM and SC-FDE relay networks in a frequency-selective fading channel. In Proc. of 12th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS). : Singapore; 2010:371-375.Google Scholar
- Eghbali H, Muhaidat S, Dhahir NA: A new receiver design for single-carrier frequency domain equalization in broadband cooperative wireless networks. In Proc. of 2009 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM). Florida, USA: Miami; 2010:1-6.Google Scholar
- Zhang J, Yang L, Hanzo L: Energe-efficient channel-dependent cooperative relaying for the multiuser SC-FDMA uplink. IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech 2011, 60(3):992-1004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim Y-J, Kwon U-K, Seol D-Y, Im G-H: An effective PAPR reduction of SFBC-OFDM for multimode cooperative transmission. IEEE Signal Process. Lett 2009, 16(11):925-928.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Eddaghel MM, Chambers JA: PAPR reduction in distributed amplify-and-forward type closed loop extended orthogonal space frequency block coding with one-bit group feedback for cooperative communications. In Proc. of 18th European Wireless Conference (EW). Poland: Poznan; 2012:1-6.Google Scholar
- Zhao Y, Adve R, Lim TJ: Improving amplify-and-forward relay networks: optimal power allocation versus selection. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun 2007, 6(8):3114-3123.Google Scholar
- Kaneko M, Hayashi K, Popovski P, Ikeda K, Sakai H, Prasad R: Amplify-and-forward cooperative diversity schemes for multi-carrier systems. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun 2008, 7(5):1845-1850.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liang Y, Schober R: Cooperative amplify-and-forward beamforming for OFDM systems with multiple relays. In Proc. of 2009 IEEE International Confernece on Communications (ICC). Germany: Dresden; 2009:1-6.Google Scholar
- Wang J, Liang J, Muhaidat S: Distortion exponents for decode-and-forward multi-relay cooperative networks. In Proc. of 2009 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). Korea: Seoul; 2009:854-858.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee Y, Chen YN, Sou SI: Error-rate performance of uplink cooperative communications with decode-and-forward protocol. IET Commun 2011, 5(11):1484-1490. 10.1049/iet-com.2010.0270View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bao X, Li J: Efficient message relaying for wireless user cooperation: decode-amplify-forward (DAF) and hybrid DAF and coded-cooperation. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun 2007, 6(11):3975-3984.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fukuyama Y, Takyu O, Adachi K, Nakagawa M: Relay method of sending soft decision symbol based on the result of error detecting code in cooperative communication. IEICE Trans. Fundament 2007, E90-A(11):2404-2412. 10.1093/ietfec/e90-a.11.2404View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duong TQ, Zepernick HJ: Hybrid decode-amplify-forward cooperative communications with multiple relays. In Proc. of 2009 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). Hungary: Budapest; 2009:1-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Olfat E, Olfat A: Performance of hybrid decode-amplify forward protocol for multiple relay networks over independent and non-identical flat fading channels. IET Commun 2011, 5(14):2018-2027. 10.1049/iet-com.2010.0834MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song K, Kim J, No J, Chung H: Analysis on soft-decision-and-forward cooperative networks with multiple relays. IEICE Trans. Commun 2012, E95-B(2):509-518. 10.1587/transcom.E95.B.509View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen S, Wang W, Zhang X: Performance analysis of multiuser diversity in cooperative multi-relay networks under rayleigh-fading channels. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun 2009, 8(7):3415-3419.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sun S, Hunziker T, Cheng J, Taromaru M, Ohira T: Optimal frame splitting for downlink MIMO channels with distributed antenna arrays. IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech 2008, 57(6):3848-3854.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Noune M, Nix A: Performance of SC-FDMA with transmit power allocation and frequency-domain equalization. In Proc. of 21st IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). Turkey: Istanbul; 2010:852-857.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozano A, Tulino AM, Verdu S: Multiuser merculy/waterfilling for downlink OFDM with arbitrary signal constellations. In Proc. of 9th IEEE International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications (ISSSTA). Amazon, Brazil: Manaus; 2006:292-296.Google Scholar
- Wang B, Zhao D: Optimum power distributed for uplink channel in a cooperative wireless CDMA network. In Proc. of 2008 IEEE International Confernece on Communications (ICC). China: Beijing; 2008:4795-4801.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ida Y, Ahn C, Kamio T, Fujisaka H, Haeiwa K, Omori T, Hashimoto K: Optimum splitting transmission in multi-relay cooperative communications for WF/PA-SC-FDMA. IEICE Tech. Rep., CS2011-127 2012, 157-160.Google Scholar
- Li Y, Vucetic B, Zhou Z, Dohler M: Distributed adaptive power allocation for wireless relay networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun 2007, 6(3):948-958.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ida Y, Ahn C, Kamio T, Fujisaka H, Haeiwa K: Throughput performance enhancement for MUDiv/OFDMA using MMSE equalization without guard interval. J. Sel. Area Telecommun 2011, 2(5):74-80.Google Scholar
- Xiao C, Zheng YR, Beaulieu C: Statistical simulation models for rayleigh and rician fading. In Proc. of 2003 IEEE International Confernece on Communications (ICC). Alaska, USA: Anchorage; 2003:3524-3529.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.