Research on construction and evaluation of the reproduction color gamut for the future laser TV
© Li et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 29 December 2012
Accepted: 7 March 2013
Published: 20 March 2013
This article builds the 3D gamut with three primary colors and standard white light of the laser TV, compares the reproduction gamut of the laser TV and liquid crystal display, qualitatively analyses the difference of their gamut characteristic, and quantificationally calculates the 2D gamut coverage ratio and 3D gamut volume. The result shows that compared with 2D gamut, 3D gamut can be more comprehensive and objective for evaluating the monitor’s color performance. This article also puts forward the realization rate of target gamut and gamut efficiency as the important parameters to evaluate the 3D reproduction ability of the displayer, thereby the objective evaluation system is created for the displayer. Using this system, this article evaluates the color effects of the future laser TV. It provides the theoretical values for ultra high-definition television system.
System of the recommendation ITU-R BT.709  can only provide part of the visible colors that the human eyes can see. Because the reference RGB primaries defined in the recommendation were determined from the colorimetric characteristics of the phosphors generally adopted for a CRT monitor. So far, ITU-R BT.709 has being international recommendation for television broadcasting system whose gamut is called conventional gamut. But recent years, flat panel displays and cameras tend to be capable of reproducing and capturing more saturated colors located beyond the conventional gamut [2, 3].
In August 2012, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) put forward the ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020 . The realization of this recommendation can offer more realistic sensation, higher transparency to the real world, and more accurate visual information compared with HDTV system . It realizes the wide-gamut display in the true sense. However, the three primary colors of UHDTV are located in the spectral locus. It is difficult to achieve its specified gamut for the existing liquid crystal display (LCD), plasma display panel displayers, so it is necessary to develop a kind of displayer to fulfill the recommendation UHDTV. Due to the good monochromaticity and high color purity of the laser , using the laser TV cannot only ensure the color of the reconstruction image, but also display the high saturation colors which are difficult to see in nature. In all, the future laser TV will be a development tendency to achieve the wide-gamut of UHDTV.
This article analyzes the reproduction gamut of the future laser TV with the constructed 3D gamut, and defines the performance parameters to evaluate the reproduction ability objectively. Finally, this article compares the gamut range between the future laser TV and the system of UHDTV/ITU-R BT.709.
2. The comparative analysis of 2D chromaticity characteristic for the laser TV and LCD
Chromaticity coordinates of the laser TV/LCD
As shown in Figure 1, the three primary colors’ coordinates of laser TV are located on the spectrum locus. Its gamut that is the color scope fully contains the gamut of LCD. After transforming the chromaticity coordinates of the display device to CIE-u’v’ color space, 2D gamut coverage ratio  of laser is obtained. It is 59.43% far higher than the color gamut coverage ratio of LCD’s 33.5%. That is to say that in 2D chrominance space without luminance factor, the color display effect of laser TV is better than the traditional LCD displayer.
3. The comparative analysis of 3D chromaticity characteristic for laser TV and LCD
3.1. Establish 3D gamut of displayers
CIE-LAB color space was established in 1976. It is more in line with the human visual requirements than others, and is considered as a uniform color space. So, 3D gamut of displayers are accomplished in CIE-LAB space, and the chromatic coordinates of colors are L*, a*, and b*.
3.2. The comparative analysis of 3D chromaticity characteristic for laser TV and LCD displayer
The 3D gamut of LCD is constructed with the method of 3–1 as the shadow part shown in Figure 2, comparative analysis the 3D display performance of laser TV and LCD.
Figure 2 is the three-dimensional chromaticity diagram of laser TV and LCD in the different angles of the CIE-LAB space. In Figure 2a,b, laser TV includes all the 3D color gamut that the LCD can show, but the LCD’s gamut in a certain angle is beyond the scope of laser TV in Figure 2. The part out of the laser TV shows that the laser TV this article chooses is a little shorter than the LCD displayer in blue hue.
Laser TV contains all LCD’s gamut in the 2D chromaticity diagram, but in 3D color space which adds the luminance information, laser TV is lightly worse than LCD in blue hue. So, it is necessary to establish the displayers’ 3D gamut to analyze its display performance.
3.3. The quantitative analysis for the size of 3D gamut
According to Hill et al.’s theory , ΔL* = Δa* = Δb* = 1 makes up the color cube in unit of one, the number of the small color cubes in the 3D gamut is the 3D gamut’s volume.
whereV is the volume of the 3D gamut, SL* is the area of the gamut boundary envelope in each layer, ΔL* is the distance between the each two layers. The results of formula 3 show that the size of LCD’s 3D gamut is 8.93 × 105, while the size of laser TV’s 3D gamut is 17.96 × 105 which is almost two times bigger than LCD’s. So in the color display, the future laser TV is better than LCD display on the whole display effect.
4. Comparative analysis between laser TV and the system of UHDTV/ITU-R BT.709
Chromaticity coordinates of laser TV/UHDTV/ITU-R BT.709
Comparison between laser TV and UHDTV/ITU-R BT.709
Color gamut area
Color gamut coverage ratio (%)
Color gamut volume
17.96 × 105
17.83 × 105
7.86 × 105
The 3D evaluation of the laser display
Gamut intersection volume
16.96 × 105
7.86 × 105
Realization rate of target gamut (%)
Gamut efficiency (%)
5. Evaluation of the 3D gamut for laser TV
Equipment gamut is the gamut that the equipment can display, target gamut is the gamut which is specified by the television recommendations such as ITU-R BT.2020 and ITU-R BT.709. The realization rate of target gamut gives an indication that how fully the equipment gamut covers the target gamut. In order to get a good display effect, the intersection volume should be close to the target gamut volume so that the realization rate of target gamut is close to 100%. The gamut efficiency means the percentage that the equipment gamut which is used to show the target gamut of the equipment, so higher gamut efficiency indicates that most of the equipment gamut is used to show the target gamut. If the gamut efficiency is much smaller, it means that the equipment gamut is bigger than the target gamut, and it needs to do the gamut compression. It will lead to color distortion.
The volume of the intersection part in 3D gamut, the realization rate of target gamut, and the gamut efficiency are calculated for the ITU-R BT.2020/laser and ITU-R BT.709/laser, respectively, and the results are shown in the following.
As showed in Table 4, the intersection volume between laser TV and the system of ITU-R BT.709 is 7.86 × 105, the realization rate of laser’s target gamut is 100%, but the gamut efficiency is only 43.76%. It means that although the equipment gamut of laser TV is bigger than that of the system of ITU-R BT.709, but most of which is out of the gamut of the system ITU-R BT.709. The laser’s gamut must be compressed to the scope of the recommendation ITU-R BT.709, the wide-gamut effect of laser TV cannot be achieved. This implies that the laser TV cannot keep a great compatibility with conventional gamut. However, for the new recommendation UHDTV, the intersection volume is 16.96 × 105, the realization rate of laser’s target gamut is 95.12% and the value of the gamut efficiency is 94.43%. The laser’s gamut basically covered the gamut of ITU-R BT.2020 system, and higher gamut efficiency is reached. Therefore, laser TV will be a developing tendency for the new recommendation UHDTV in the future displayer market.
This article compares the reproduction ability of the laser TV and LCD in 2D chrominance space without the brightness information. The results show that laser TV fully contains the gamut that the LCD can display; but the same work in three-dimensional chromaticity diagram gets the different results that the gamut of LCD moves beyond the biggest gamut range of the laser TV in blue hue. In order to do the analysis in the 3D color space, this article constructs 3D color gamut for the laser TV.
In order to quantitatively analyze the size of the 3D gamut for laser TV, this article builds the laser TV’s 3D gamut step-by-step in the CIE-LAB space, and uses the concept of color cube to calculate the gamut volume of laser TV. The volume is 17.96 × 105 which is two times bigger than LCD.
Furthermore, this article uses realization rate of target gamut and gamut efficiency to evaluate the laser TV’s display performance. The laser TV can realize 100% of the recommendation ITU-R BT.709’s gamut, but the gamut efficiency is only 43.76%, which does not give full play to the wide-gamut of the laser TV. But for the UHDTV recommendation, laser TV cannot only better realize the gamut that the recommendation ITU-R BT.2020 specified, but also higher gamut efficiency is reached. So for, the future displayer market, the laser TV, will be a good choice to realize the wide-gamut display under the UHDTV system.
This study was supported by the Doctoral Foundation of Tianjin Normal University (52XB1006).
- International Telecommunication Union: ITU-R BT 7095:– Parameter Values for the HDTV Standards for Production and International Programme Exchange. Geneva: ITU; 2002.Google Scholar
- Kaneko H, Kagawa S, Someya J, Tanizoe H, Sugiura H: Wide color gamut and high brightness WUXGA LCD monitor with color calibrators. IEICE Trans. Electron. 2005, E88-C: 2118-2123. 10.1093/ietele/e88-c.11.2118View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shimodaira Y, Suzuki H, Kretkowski M: New imaging and display system for wide gamut color reproduction. Conference Record of the2007 IEEE 42nd IAS Annual Meeting on Industry Applications Conference 2007, 1153-1157.Google Scholar
- International Telecommunication Union: ITU-R BT.2020: Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange. Geneva: ITU; 2012.Google Scholar
- Sugawara M, Masaoka K, Emoto M, Matsuo Y, Nojiri Y: Research on human factors in ultrahigh-definition television (UHDTV) to determine its specifications. SMPTE Motion Imag. 2008, 117: 23-29.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song G: Research on color reverting for display of new modes. Tianjin University: Tianjin; 2008.Google Scholar
- Moon-Cheol K: Comparative color gamut analysis of xvYCC standard. Displays 2008, 4(29):376-385.Google Scholar
- Liu Q: Color gamut and color gamut coverage. Television Technol. 2004, 11: 49-52.Google Scholar
- Jiewei H, Shunqing T, Zhengfang Z: Modern Color Science and Application(Beijing. Beijing: Institute of Technology Press; 2007.Google Scholar
- Sile L: The Theory of Television. Beijing: National Defence Industry Press; 2007:37-39.Google Scholar
- Hill B, Roger T, Vorhagen FW: Comparative analysis of the quantization of color spaces on the basis of the CIELAB color difference formulate. ACM Transactions on Graphics 1997, 2(16):109-154.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Park DS, Choi SY, Lee HY, Kim YT, Hong JY, Kim CY: A new wide-gamut RGB primary set and efficient color encoding methods for ultra high-definition television(UHDTV). Proceedings of the IEEE 2013, 101(1):18-30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Braun G, Spaulding K: Method for evaluating the color gamut and quantization characteristics of output-referred extended-gamut color encodings. In IS&T/SID Tenth Color Imaging Conference. New York; vol.10, November 2002:99-105.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.