A distributed framework for detecting selfish nodes in MANET using Record- and Trust-Based Detection (RTBD) technique
© Subramaniyan et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 10 July 2014
Accepted: 29 October 2014
Published: 29 November 2014
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organized system comprised by multiple mobile wireless nodes. The node misbehavior due to selfish reasons can significantly diminish the performance of MANET. A selfish node attempts to use the resources only for its own purpose and it hesitates to share the resources with their neighbors. So, it is very important to detect the selfish nodes to improve the performance of MANET. Initially, an architectural model of a MANET is constructed and the communication between the mobile is originated. The packet drop can happen in MANET due to the selfish node or network congestion. In this paper, a Record- and Trust-Based Detection (RTBD) technique is proposed to detect the selfish nodes efficiently in MANET. The main reason for using trust in this analysis is to accelerate the detection of misbehaving nodes. This study has been carried out in order to analyze the detection of selfish nodes on essential network functions such as routing and packet dropping. The results show that the proposed selfish node detection method is very efficient, since the detection time of selfish nodes is diminished and the overall overhead is very low. The simulation study demonstrates that the proposed RTBD method enhances the selfish node detection ratio, packet delivery ratio (PDR), and average packet drop ratio.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless network among mobile devices. It is a self-configuring system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links, which contains a network area with nodes. This network is relatively a new communication paradigm, which contains a group of mobile devices communicating through a wireless medium. A major problem in MANETs is the frequent occurrence of network divisions due to the unlimited movement of the mobile nodes in the network. This results in some data getting inaccessible to some of the nodes. Thus, data accessibility needs to be considered carefully in MANET . Each mobile node in MANET requires the help of other nodes to forward the packets. The nodes are expected to wait for a pre-defined time interval between successive transmissions. But a mobile node may misbehave due to network congestion and selfishness. Node misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons or faulty nodes can significantly reduce the performance of MANETs.
Node misbehavior means deviation from the original routing and forwarding. The source node can relay packets to the destination node through other nodes in MANET. The selfish nodes  do not participate in the routing process, which intentionally delay and drop the packet. These misbehaviors of the selfish nodes will impact the efficiency, reliability, and the fairness. A selfish node does not perform the process related to packet forwarding function for data packets unrelated to itself. The selfish node utilizes its limited resources only for its own purpose because of the energy and storage constraints for each node in the MANET. It aims to save its resources to the maximum, so this type of misbehaving node discards all incoming packets except those which are destined to it. The selfish nodes neglect to share their resources, such as battery power, CPU time, and memory space to other nodes in MANET. This behavior is observed in the data link/MAC layer, which is decisive, specifically when the mobile nodes possess small residual power.
The features of the selfish nodes are as follows:
Non-participation in routing
No transmission or reply to HELLO messages
Intentional postponement of route request (RREQ) packets
Data packet dropping
Behavior of the node
Speed of the node
Direction of the node
Position of the node
The main objective of the proposed work is to detect the selfish node in MANET using the Record- and Trust-Based Detection (RTBD) technique. The proposed method consists of a packet dropping detection scheme and a selfish node mitigation scheme. The selfish node is required to generate a trust report during each neighbor, which reports its previous communication reports to the neighboring node. Based on that report, the neighboring node detects if the selfish node has dropped packets. The neighboring node gathers the trust report to detect misreporting and then it finds out which node has dropped packets. A selfish node may report a false record to hide the dropping from being detected.
The remaining part of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 involves the works related to existing solutions for handling and detecting the selfish nodes in MANET. Section 3 involves the description of the RTBD method - selfish node detection based on trust reports and packet drop rates. Section 4 involves the performance evaluation and comparison of selfish node detection based on trust reports and packet drop rates and existing techniques based on trust. Section 5 concludes the paper and identifies the future research directions.
2 Related work
This section deals with the existing solutions for handling and detecting the nodal misbehavior in MANET. Singh et al.  implemented a security-based algorithmic approach in MANETs. In this analysis, an empirical and effective approach was proposed to optimize the packet loss frequency. Hernandez et al.  introduced a fast model to evaluate the selfish node detection in MANET using a watchdog approach. They estimated the time of detection and the overhead of collaborative watchdog approach for detecting one selfish node. Manoj et al.  introduced a novel trust-based certificate authority concept to transmit data packets through trusted nodes and insulates malicious nodes in MANET. The suggested trust management scheme provides low battery power consumption and packet integrity aspect in addition to direct and indirect trust values. Jawhar et al. suggested a reliable routing protocol for enhanced reliability and security of communication in the MANET and sensor networks . In this paper, the reliability and security were achieved by the maintenance of a reliability factor by the nodes. Rodriguez and Gozalvez  recommended a reputation-based selfishness prevention technique for MANET. Disparate reputation-based protocols were proposed in this paper to observe the correct relaying of packets and to compile information about potential selfish nodes.
Afghah et al.  suggested a unique game theoretical method to model packet forwarding in relay networks. In this paper, a stationary Markovian model was utilized to optimize the system performance in terms of throughput, delay, and power consumption cost. Hernandez et al.  endorsed a collaborative watchdog approach to improve the selfish node detection in MANETs. They introduced an analytical method to evaluate the selfish node detection time and the cost of the collaborative approach. Padiya et al. suggested an innovated technique to detect selfish nodes in MANET . The authors discussed three techniques to detect selfish nodes in MANET, namely reputation-based technique, credit-based technique, and acknowledgement-based technique. It was beneficial only for a node not to send the alarm message to avoid the risk. Roy and Chaki  designed a new intrusion detection system (IDS) based on mobile agents. The intent of this analysis was to address the limitations of IDS systems by taking advantage of the mobile agent system. Koshti and Kamoji  described two techniques, namely reputation-based system and credit-based system, for detecting selfish nodes in MANET. In this study, the 2ack scheme was used to detect and mitigate the effect of misbehaving nodes in MANET.
Patil and Kallimath  implemented a cross-layer approach for detecting selfish nodes in MANET. The main aim of this paper was to enhance the routing in MANET by using on-demand routing protocols such as ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. Kurkure and Chaudhari  illustrated a comparative analysis of the selfish node detection methods based on detection time and message overhead. In this paper, a collaborative watchdog method was used to identify the selfish nodes and diminish the detection time and message overhead. Nandhini et al.  implemented an effective ant-based routing algorithm to diminish the overhead in a mobile network. The authors proposed a novel approach based on an ant colony algorithm to enhance the efficiency and to diminish the overhead. Ciobanu et al.  suggested an incentive mechanism for detecting selfish nodes in opportunistic networks. The aim of this approach was to diminish the issues of having selfish nodes in an opportunistic network.
Sahu and Sinha  suggested a cooperative approach for understanding the behavior of IDS in MANETs. In this paper, they described about various attacks and techniques used for intrusion detection which were proposed to provide high performance. Goyal and Singh  recommended an improved inverted table approach to detect selfish nodes in MANET. In this paper, a multi-dimensional trust management architecture was proposed to evaluate the trustworthiness of nodes in MANETs. Patel et al.  used an AODV protocol for trust-based routing in ad hoc networks. Ad hoc networks have limited physical security, less infrastructure, restricted power supply, mobility network, and changing network topology. Bao et al.  proposed a highly scalable cluster-based hierarchical trust management protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, they analyzed and evaluated the existing trust management schemes in MANETs. Cho et al.  developed and analyzed a trust management protocol for mission group communication systems in MANET. The goal of this study was to identify optimal design settings through the evaluation of mathematical models developed using a quantitative modeling technique. Velloso et al. suggested a human-based model, which built a relationship between nodes in an ad hoc network . They present a flexible trust model in ad hoc networks based on the concept of human trust.
In this paper, the proposed record- and trust-based selfish node detection in MANET was compared with existing systems such as 2ack scheme, credit-based system, reputation-based system, or acknowledgement-based system. Boopathi et al.  suggested a random 2ack scheme to detect the selfish nodes in MANETs. The 2ack scheme was a network layer technique to detect selfishness and to mitigate their effects. Due to the dynamic change in topology, finding the route was very difficult, which was the drawback of this paper. Demestiches et al.  identified and addressed the main problem of service configuration and distribution in a composite radio environment (SCD-CRE). Atlasis et al.  suggested a learning automation (LA) method with equivalent bandwidth approximations in order to diminish the percentage of overestimation. In this paper, a preventive congestion control mechanism and a call admission control (CAC) problem were examined.
The existing approaches, tries to give a motivation for participating in the network function. The major weakness of those techniques was the demand for trusted hardware to secure the currency. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a RTBD method is proposed in this paper.
3 Proposed method
3.1 Route discovery
3.2 Selfish node detection
The MANET is modeled and the nodes in the network are deployed according to the architectural model. Numerous nodes will be participating in the MANET for forwarding and transmitting the data packets between the source and destination. All the nodes in MANET perform the routing function as mandatory and they must forward traffic, which other nodes sent to it. Among all the nodes, some of the nodes will behave selfishly; these types of nodes are called selfish nodes. Any node in MANET may act selfishly, which means using its limited resources only for its own profit, since each node in a network has the resource constraints such as storage and battery limitations. This type of nodes likes to enjoy the profits provided by the resources of other nodes in the network. But it should not make its own resource accessible to others. These nodes intent to get the greatest benefits from the network while trying to preserve their own resources. The behaviors of the selfish nodes are shown below:
Do not forward RREQ messages. This type of nodes does not forward the RREQ messages in MANET. It drops these packets to avoid being the route member for others.
Do not forward data messages. This kind of selfish nodes will forward the messages, but it will not relay data messages and drop them. This misbehavior will impact the performance of MANET.
Delayed forwarding RREQ messages. This kind of selfish nodes forwards the messages with a delay near the upper limit of timeout.
Do not forward RREP messages. If this kind of selfish node exists in MANET, it will drop all RREP messages received by these nodes.
Existing explorations on selfish behaviors in a MANET mainly concentrates on network concerns. The main objective of this analysis is to enhance the performance of MANET by detecting these types of selfish nodes using RTBD technique. In this paper, the problem of selfishness is addressed by using record-based trust mechanism.
3.3 Record- and Trust-Based Detection technique
Trust value calculation parameters
where TV represents the trust level value and T(RREQ), T(RRES), and T(DATA) are time factorial for route request, route response, and data sent by the node, respectively.
4 Performance analysis
Simulation setup parameters
100 × 100 m
Number of nodes (x)
Buffer length (MSa)
Constant bit rate (CBR)
Receiver energy (R x )
Transmitter energy (T x )
Initial energy (E i )
4.1 Identification of verified block listed nodes
4.2 Detection of selfish nodes
4.3 Packet delivery ratio
4.4 Average packet dropping
4.5 Detection rate
4.6 False positive rate
4.7 Average latency
4.8 Average overhead
The misbehavior of selfish nodes is a major problem in MANET. The selfish nodes do not participate in the routing process, which intentionally delay and drop the packet. These misbehaviors of the selfish nodes will impact the efficiency, reliability, and fairness. The selfish node utilizes the resources for its own purpose, and it neglects to share the resources to other nodes. So, it is important to detect the selfish nodes in MANET. This study proposes a new technique, namely RTBD, to detect the selfish nodes in an efficient manner. The suggested RTBD method is an effective method, which enhances the performance of MANET. It significantly improves the performance metrics such as PDR and detection ratio. Moreover, it diminishes the overhead, latency, and packet dropping ratio. Compared to the existing SCF method, the proposed method competently detects the selfish nodes in MANET.
The future enhancement can be done by providing the security to the neighbor node. This avoids the neighbor node being compromised by the selfish node.
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