Performance analysis of two-user cooperative ARQ protocol over Rayleigh fading channel
© Xiao and Ni; licensee Springer. 2015
Received: 19 August 2014
Accepted: 24 December 2014
Published: 25 January 2015
In this paper, we present a two-user cooperative automatic repeat request (C-ARQ) protocol which combines cooperative diversity at the physical layer and ARQ at the link layer. In this scheme, distributed Alamouti space-time block coding (DASTBC) is applied to achieve cooperative diversity, and ARQ is used to improve the data link layer reliability. To analyze the performance of the proposed protocol, we derive the average frame error rate (FER) and throughput with multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) over a Rayleigh fading channel. Numerical simulation results show that the performance gain of average FER with ARQ retransmission is about 2 dB more than the case without ARQ retransmission in the same conditions. Moreover, the combined DASTBC and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) with ARQ retransmission will lead to an approximate 3 Mbits/s increase in transmission rate.
Multiple antennas are often used to combat channel fading in wireless communication system . However, implementing multiple antennas at a mobile station is impractical for most wireless applications due to the limited size of the mobile unit [2,3]. Relay-assisted communication is suitable to solve the problem and plays a main role in the future generation cellular systems and ad hoc networks . One form of relay-assisted communication is cooperative diversity [5,6]. Its principle is to exploit the broadcast nature of wireless transmission and creates a virtual antenna array through cooperating users. Each transmitting node has its own message and is responsible for transmitting the information of its partner(s). Therefore, a virtual antenna array is obtained through the use of the relay's antennas without complicated signal design or adding more antennas into the nodes. In , a cooperative diversity scheme between users has been used not only to obtain higher throughput but also to decrease time-varying channel sensitivity. In , multiple-source cooperative message has been sent to a common destination, and it is shown to offer full spatial diversity with better bandwidth efficiency. In , differential relay strategies over downlink channel in a two-user cooperative communication system have been proposed, which are able to achieve performance gain in association with the proposed criterion. Recently, various techniques such as distributed space-time coding [10,11] and modulation  have been developed to realize cooperative diversity. For achieving a diversity gain, the Alamouti space-time block code (STBC) has been used in cooperative system in a distributed manner . These cooperative diversity schemes have been shown to be able to achieve significant performance gains over the amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols .
Automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol is commonly used in the communication system to improve the reliability, which requests retransmissions for those packets received in error . Recently, the ARQ protocol has been applied in cooperative diversity system to achieve higher link reliability; it is called cooperative ARQ . Cooperative ARQ (C-ARQ) protocol permits nodes other than the source and the destination to actively help deliver the correct data [3,17,18]. In , the authors have analyzed the diversity multiplexing trade-off (DMT) for ARQ-based opportunistic cooperative communication over Nakagami fading channels. In , the authors have designed the ARQ protocol for two-user cooperative diversity systems in wireless networks. In , a cross-layer C-ARQ has been studied, and the performance of spectral efficiency over Nakagami fading channel has been evaluated. In , a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach has been proposed, which can improve the network outage probability and the users' fairness. Despite that these studies are not relevant to the average frame error rate (FER) and throughput of cooperative ARQ, they can serve as references .
In this paper, we present a two-user C-ARQ protocol which combines cooperative diversity at the physical layer and ARQ at the link layer. To analyze the performance of the protocol, we derive the average FER and throughput with multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) over a Rayleigh fading channel. Numerical simulation results show that the performance gain of average FER with ARQ retransmission is about 2 dB more than the case without ARQ retransmission in the same conditions. Moreover, the combined distributed Alamouti space-time block coding (DASTBC) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) with ARQ retransmission will lead to an approximately 3 Mbits/s increase in transmission rate.
2 System model
In this paper, we extend a two-user cooperative diversity system by exploiting the proposed ARQ protocols as follows. A whole cooperative frame is divided into three sub-frames. The first sub-frame is allocated for user 1 (U1) to transmit its data packet. The second sub-frame is assigned to user 2 (U2) to transmit its data packet. The third sub-frame is shared between both users and is used to relay each other's message to the destination. The cyclic redundancy checksum (CRC) is used to facilitate error detection. If one user receives a correct sub-frame of its partner, it will relay the received information in cooperative sub-frame. Otherwise, the relaying user will do nothing in the third sub-frame. To utilize DASTBC to achieve diversity, U1 relays the packet of U2 with a negative conjugate form. Similarly, U2 transmits a conjugate packet of U1. Then, the destination uses maximum ratio combine (MRC) to receive data packets.
3 Two-user cooperative ARQ protocol
If the receiver decodes the messages of U1 and U2 correctly. The destination simultaneously transmits an ACK message to U1 and U2. The system will start the next cooperative frame.
If the receiver does only decode the messages of U1 correctly. The destination drops the erroneous packets and feeds back two messages in half time slots of feedback duration, an NACK for U2 and ACK for U1. Then, retransmission will be performed by U2 in the next cooperative frame, while U1 will transmit its next packet in that frame. And vice versa, if the receiver does only decode the messages of U2 correctly, a reciprocity ARQ process is also executed.
If the receiver does not decode the messages of U1 and U2 correctly. The destination dumps both erroneous packets and feeds back a NACK message to inform both users to retransmit their incorrect packets in the next frame.
4 Performance analysis
In this section, to analyze the performance of the protocol, we derive the average FER and throughput with MPSK over the Rayleigh fading channel.
4.1 Average frame error rate
According to three cases of the proposed C-ARQ protocol, the average FER at the destination are respectively given by the following:
4.2 Throughput analysis
5 Numerical simulation results
In this section, numerical simulation results are provided to present the average FER performance analysis of the two-user C-ARQ protocol. We set the number of packets N b = 1,000. Each packet is set to be 1,000 symbols (N p = 1,000), and the pilot and control parts are set to be 4 symbols (N c = 4). Each channel realization is generated as random matrix whose elements are assumed to be circularly symmetric complex Gaussian with zero mean and unity variance. Ten thousand channel matrices are generated with Monte Carlo simulations. For each scenario, 1,000,000 simulation runs are used to obtain each simulated point. The transmitters have normalized bandwidth W = 1 M (it is straightforward to extend the results to the cases with different bandwidths).
In this paper, we have presented a two-user C-ARQ protocol. To analyze the performance of the protocol, we have derived the average FER and throughput over a Rayleigh fading channel. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the proposed theoretical analysis. Although we limit two users for simplicity, the proposed scheme can be extended to include more than two users, and the proposed protocol can provide useful basic tools for designing more complicated ARQ protocols. More importantly, our results in this paper offer important analytical method in cooperative communication system.
The work of H. Xiao and J. Ni is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.: 61472094; 61261018; 61362007), Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (Grants No.: 2014GXNSFGA118007 and 2013GXNSFFA019004).
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