 Research
 Open Access
Interference management with mismatched partial channel state information
 Alireza Vahid^{1},
 Vaneet Aggarwal^{2},
 A. Salman Avestimehr^{3}Email authorView ORCID ID profile and
 Ashutosh Sabharwal^{4}
https://doi.org/10.1186/s1363801709170
© The Author(s) 2017
 Received: 14 September 2016
 Accepted: 19 July 2017
 Published: 3 August 2017
Abstract
We study the fundamental limits of communications over multilayer wireless networks where each node has only limited knowledge of the channel state information. In particular, we consider the scenario in which each sourcedestination pair has only enough information to perform optimally when other pairs do not interfere. Beyond that, the only other information available at each node is the global network connectivity. We propose a transmission strategy that solely relies on the available limited knowledge and combines coding with interference avoidance. We show that our proposed strategy goes well beyond the performance of interference avoidance techniques. We present an algebraic framework for the proposed transmission strategy based on which we provide a guarantee of the achievable rate. For several network topologies, we prove the optimality of our proposed strategy by providing informationtheoretic outerbounds.
1 Introduction
In dynamic wireless networks, optimizing system efficiency requires channel state information (CSI) in order to determine what resources are actually available. This information is acquired through feedback channel which is subject to several constraints such as delay, limited capacity, and locality. Consequently, in largescale wireless networks, keeping track of the channel state information for making optimal decisions is typically infeasible due to the limitations of feedback channels and the significant overhead it introduces. Thus, in the absence of centralization of channel state information, nodes have limited local views of the network and make decentralized decisions based on their own local view of the network. The key question is how optimal decentralized decisions perform in comparison to the optimal centralized decisions.
In this paper, we consider multisource multidestination multilayer wireless networks, and we seek fundamental limits of communications when sources have limited local views of the network. To model local views at wireless nodes, we consider the scenario in which each sourcedestination (SD) pair has enough information to perform optimally when other pairs do not interfere. Beyond that, the only other information available at each node is the global network connectivity. We refer to this model of local network knowledge as 1local view [1]. The motivation for this model stems from coordination protocols such as routing which are often employed in multihop networks to discover sourcedestination routes.
Our performance metric is normalized sum capacity defined in [2] which represents the maximum fraction of the sum capacity with full knowledge that can be always achieved when nodes have partial network knowledge. To better understand our objective, consider a multisource multidestination multilayer wireless network. For each SD pair, we define the induced subgraph by removing all other SD pairs and the links that are not on a path between the chosen SD pair. Our objective is to determine the minimum number of time slots T that is required for each SD pair to reconstruct any transmission snapshot in their induced subgraph over the original network. Normalized sum capacity is simply equal to one over T.
Our main contributions are as follows. We propose an algebraic framework that defines a transmission scheme that only requires 1local view at the nodes and combines coding with interference avoidance scheduling. The scheme is a combination of three main techniques: (1) per layer interference avoidance, (2) repetition coding to allow overhearing of the interference, and (3) network coding to allow interference neutralization.
We then characterize the achievable normalized sum rate of our proposed scheme and analyze its optimality for some classes of networks. We consider twolayer networks: (1) with two relays and any number of sourcedestination pairs, (2) with three sourcedestination pairs and three relays, and (3) with foldedchain structure (defined in Section 5). We also show that the gain from our proposed scheme over interference avoidance scheduling can be unbounded in Lnested foldedchain networks (defined in Section 5).
A related line of work was started by [3] which assumes wireless nodes are aware of the topology but not the channel state information. In this setting, all nodes have the same side information whereas in our work, nodes have partial and mismatched knowledge of the channel state information. The problem is then connected to index coding, and topological interference management scheme (TIM) is proposed. There are many results e.g., [4–9]) that follow a similar path of [3]. We generalize the problem to multihop networks and design our communication protocol accordingly, but TIM is designed for singlehop networks. Moreover, our formulation provides a continuous transition from no CSI to full CSI (by having more and more hops of knowledge) whereas [3] focuses only on the extreme case of no channel state information.
Many other models for imprecise network information have been considered for interference networks. These models range from having no channel state information at the sources [10–13], delayed channel state information [14–19], mismatched delayed channel state knowledge [20–22], or analog channel state feedback for fully connected interference channels [23]. Most of these works assume fully connected network or a small number of users. For networks with arbitrary connectivity, the first attempt to understand the role of limited network knowledge was initiated in [24, 25] in the context of singlelayer networks. The authors used a messagepassing abstraction of network protocols to formalize the notion of local view. The key result of [24, 25] is that localviewbased (decentralized) decisions can be either sum rate optimal or can be arbitrarily worse than the globalview (centralized) sum capacity. In this work, we focus on multilayer setting and we show that several important additional ingredients are needed compared to the singlelayer scenario.
It is worth noting that since each channel gain can range from zero to a maximum value, our formulation is similar to compound channels [26, 27] with one major difference. In the multiterminal compound network formulations, all nodes are missing identical information about the channels in the network whereas in our formulation, the 1local view results in asymmetric and mismatched information about channels at different nodes.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we introduce our network model and the new model for partial network knowledge. In Section 3 via a number of examples, we motivate our transmission strategies and the algebraic framework. In Section 4, we formally define the algebraic framework and we characterize the performance of the transmission strategy based on this framework. In Section 5, we prove the optimality of our strategies for several network topologies. Finally, Section 6 concludes the paper.
2 Problem formulation
In this section, we introduce our model for the wireless channel and the available network knowledge at the nodes. We also define the notion of normalized sum capacity which will be used as the performance metric for the strategies with partial network knowledge.
2.1 Network model and notations
where \(\mathcal {V}\) is the set of vertices representing nodes in the network, \(\mathcal {E}\) is the set of directed edges representing links among these nodes, and \(\{ w_{ij} \}_{(i,j) \in \mathcal {E}}\) represents the channel gains associated with the edges.
Out of the \(\mathcal {V}\) nodes in the network, K nodes are sources and K nodes are destinations. We label these source and destination nodes by S _{ i }s and D _{ i }s respectively, i=1,2,…,K. The remaining \(\mathcal {V}2K\) nodes are relay nodes which facilitate the communication between sources and destinations. We can simply refer to a node in \(\mathcal {V}\) as V _{ i }, \(i = 1,2,\ldots,\mathcal {V}\). In this work, we focus on twolayer networks.
 1.The linear deterministic model [28]: In this model, there is a nonnegative integer, w _{ ij }=n _{ ij }, associated with each link \((i,j) \in \mathcal {E}\) which represents its gain. Let q be the maximum of all the channel gains in this network. In the linear deterministic model, the channel input at node V _{ i } at time t is denoted by$$\begin{array}{*{20}l} X_{\mathsf{V}_{i}}[\!t] = [\boldsymbol \!X_{\mathsf{V}_{i_{1}}}[\!t], X_{\mathsf{V}_{i_{2}}}[\!t], \ldots, X_{\mathsf{V}_{i_{q}}}[\!t] \!]^{T} \in \mathbb{F}_{2}^{q}. \end{array} $$(2)The received signal at node V _{ j } at time t is denoted by$$\begin{array}{*{20}l} Y_{\mathsf{V}_{j}}[\!t] = [ \!Y_{\mathsf{V}_{j_{1}}}[\!t], Y_{\mathsf{V}_{j_{2}}}[\!t], \ldots, Y_{\mathsf{V}_{j_{q}}}[\!t]\! ]^{T} \in \mathbb{F}_{2}^{q}, \end{array} $$(3)and is given by$$ Y_{\mathsf{V}_{j}}[\!t] = \sum_{i: (i,j) \in \mathcal{E}}{\mathbf{S}^{qn_{ij}} X_{\mathsf{V}_{i}}[\!t]}, $$(4)
where S is the q×q shift matrix and the operations are in \(\mathbb {F}_{2}^{q}\). If a link between V _{ i } and V _{ j } does not exist, we set n _{ ij } to be zero.
 2.The Gaussian model: In this model, the channel gain w _{ ij } is denoted by \(h_{ij} \in \mathbb {C}\). The channel input at node V _{ i } at time t is denoted by \(X_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}[t] \in \mathbb {C}\), and the received signal at node V _{ j } at time t is denoted by \(Y_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}[t] \in \mathbb {C}\) given by$$ Y_{\mathsf{V}_{j}}[\!t] = \sum_{i}{h_{ij} X_{\mathsf{V}_{i}}[\!t] + Z_{j}[\!t]}, $$(5)where Z _{ j }[t] is the additive white complex Gaussian noise with unit variance. We also assume a power constraint of 1 at all nodes, i.e.,$$ {\lim}_{n\to\infty}\frac{1}{n} \mathbb{E}\left(\sum\limits_{t=1}^{n}{X_{\mathsf{V}_{i}}[t]^{2}}\right) \le 1. $$(6)
A route from a source S _{ i } to a destination D _{ j } is a set of nodes such that there exists an ordering of these nodes where the first one is S _{ i }, the last one is D _{ j }, and any two consecutive nodes in this ordering are connected by an edge in the graph.
Definition 1
Induced subgraph \(\mathcal {G}_{ij}\) is a subgraph of \(\mathcal {G}\) with its vertex set being the union of all routes (as defined above) from source S _{ i } to a destination D _{ j }, and its edge set being the subset of all edges in \(\mathcal {G}\) between the vertices of \(\mathcal {G}_{ij}\).
We say that SD pair i and SD j are noninterfering if \(\mathcal {G}_{ii}\) and \(\mathcal {G}_{jj}\) are two disjoint induced subgraphs of \(\mathcal {G}\).
2.2 Partial network knowledge model

All nodes have full knowledge of the network topology \((\mathcal {V},\mathcal {E})\) (i.e., they know which links are in \(\mathcal {G}\), but not necessarily their channel gains). The network topology knowledge is denoted by side information SI;

Each source, S _{ i }, knows the gains of all the channels that are in \(\mathcal {G}_{ii}\), i=1,2,…,K. This channel knowledge at a source is denoted by \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}L_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}\).

Each node V _{ i } (which is not a source) has the union of the information of all those sources that have a route to it, and this knowledge at node is denoted by \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}L_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}\).
This partial network knowledge is motivated by the following argument. Suppose a network with a single SD pair and no interference. In such a network, one expects the SD pair to be able to communicate optimally (or close to optimal) and our model guarantees this baseline performance. In fact, our model assumes the minimum knowledge needed at different nodes such that each SD pair can communicate optimally in the absence of interference. Moreover, our assumption is backed by message passing algorithm which is how CSI is learned in wireless networks.
Remark 1
Our formulation is a general version of compound channel formulation where nodes have mismatched and asymmetric lack of knowledge.
2.3 Performance metric
Our goal is to find out the minimum number of time slots such that all induced subgraphs can be reconstructed as if there is no interference. It turns out the aforementioned objective is closely related to the notion of normalized sum capacity introduced in [2]. Here, we define the notion of normalized sum capacity which is going to be our metric for evaluating network capacity with partial network knowledge. Intuitively, normalized sum capacity represents the maximum fraction of the sum capacity with full knowledge that can be achieved when nodes have partial network knowledge.
Consider the scenario in which source S _{ i } wishes to reliably communicate message \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\text {W}_{i} \in \{ 1,2,\ldots,2^{N R_{i}}\}\) to destination D _{ i } during N uses of the channel, i=1,2,…,K. We assume that the messages are independent and chosen uniformly. For each source S _{ i }, let message W_{ i } be encoded as \(X_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}^{N}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) using the encoding function \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}e_{i}(\text {W}_{i}L_{\mathsf {S}_{i}},\mathsf {SI})\) which depends on the available local network knowledge, \(L_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\), and the global side information, SI.
Each relay in the network creates its input to the channel, \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}X_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}\), using the encoding function \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}f_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}[\!t]\left (Y_{\mathsf { V}_{i}}^{(t1)}L_{\mathsf {V}_{i}},\mathsf {SI}\right)\) which depends on the available network knowledge, \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}L_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}\), and the side information, SI, and all the previous received signals at the relay \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}Y_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}^{(t1)} = \left [ Y_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}[1], Y_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}[\!2], \ldots, Y_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}[\!t1]\! \right ]\). A relay strategy is defined as the union of all encoding functions used by the relays, \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\{ f_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}[t](Y_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}^{(t1)}L_{\mathsf {V}_{i}},\mathsf {SI}) \}\), t=1,2,…,N and \(\mathsf {V}_{i} \in \bigcup _{j=1}^{L1}{\mathcal {V}_{j}}\).
Destination D _{ i } is only interested in decoding W_{ i }, and it will decode the message using the decoding function \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\widehat {\text {W}}_{i} = d_{i}(Y_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}^{N} L_{\mathsf {D}_{i}},\mathsf {SI})\) where \(L_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) is destination D _{ i }’s network knowledge. We note that the local view can vary from node to node.
Definition 2
An error occurs when \(\widehat {\text {W}}_{i} \neq \text {W}_{i}\), and we define the decoding error probability, λ _{ i }, to be equal to \(P(\widehat {\text {W}}_{i} \neq \text {W}_{i})\). A rate tuple (R _{1},R _{2},…,R _{ K }) is said to be achievable if there exists a set of strategies \(\{ \mathcal {S}_{j} \}_{j=1}^{N}\) such that the decoding error probabilities λ _{1},λ _{2},…,λ _{ K } go to zero as N→∞ for all network states consistent with the side information. Moreover, for SD pair i, we denote the maximum achievable rate with full network knowledge by C _{ i }. The sum capacity C _{sum} is the supremum of \(\sum _{i=1}^{K}{R_{i}}\) over all possible encoding and decoding functions with full network knowledge.
We now define the normalized sum rate and the normalized sum capacity.
Definition 3
Definition 4
([2]) Normalized sum capacity α ^{∗} is defined as the supremum of all achievable normalized sum rates α. Note that α ^{∗}∈ [0,1].
Remark 2
While the results of this paper may appear pessimistic, they are much like any other compound channel analysis which aims to optimize the worst case scenario. We adopted the normalized capacity as our metric which opens the door for exact (or nearexact) results for several cases as we will see in this paper. We view our current formulation as a step towards the general case, much like the commonly accepted methodology where channel state information is assumed known perfectly in first steps of a new problem (MIMO, interference channels, scaling laws), even though that assumption is almost never possible.
3 Motivating examples
Before diving into the main results, we use a sequence of examples to understand the mechanisms that allow us outperform interference avoidance with only 1local view.
Consider the linear deterministic model and the induced subgraphs of all three SD pairs as shown in Fig. 2b. We show that any transmission strategy over these three induced subgraphs can be implemented in the original network by using only two time slots such that all nodes receive the same signal as if they were in the induced subgraphs. This would immediately imply that a normalized sum rate of \(\frac {1}{2}\) is achievable^{1}.
To do so, we split the communication block into two time slots of equal length. Sources S _{1} and S _{2} transmit the same codewords as if they are in the induced subgraphs over first time slot. Destination D _{1} receives the same signal as it would have in its induced subgraph, and destination D _{3} receives interference from source S _{2}.
This example illustrated that with only 1local view, it is possible to reconstruct the three induced subgraphs in only two time slots using (repetition) coding at the sources and go beyond interference avoidance and TDMA. In the following example, we show that more sophisticated ideas are required to beat TDMA in multilayer networks.
We now show that using repetition coding at the sources and linear coding at the relays, it is possible to achieve α=1/2 and reconstruct the three induced subgraphs in only two time slots. This example was first presented in [1].
From the receive matrices in (14), we can easily check whether each relay has access to the same received signals as if it was in the diamond networks of Fig. 4b–d.
If in row t more than one 1 appears, then the relay creates the linear combination of the signals it has for the SD pairs that have a 1 in their column and transmits it. For instance, relay V _{1} during time slot 2 transmits \(X_{\mathsf {V}_{1}}^{1} \oplus X_{\mathsf { V}_{1}}^{3}\).
Thus, each destination can recover its intended signal interferencefree and a normalized sum rate of \(\alpha =\frac {1}{2}\) is achievable.
4 An algebraic framework
In this section, given \(T \in \mathbb {N}\), we define a set of conditions that if satisfied, all induced subgraphs can be reconstructed in T time slots. Consider a twolayer wireless network \(\mathcal {G} = (\mathcal {V},\mathcal {E},\{ w_{ij} \}_{(i,j) \in \mathcal {E}})\) with K sourcedestination pairs and \(\left  \mathcal {V} \right   2K\) relay nodes. We label the sources as S _{1},…,S _{ K }, the destinations as D _{1},…,D _{ K }, and the relays as \(\mathsf {V}_{1},\ldots,\mathsf {V}_{\left  \mathcal {V} \right   2K}\). We also need the following definitions:
Definition 5
 1.
For the linear deterministic model, all entries to these matrices are in binary field (i.e., either 0 or 1);
 2.
For the Gaussian model, all entries to these matrices are in {−1,0,1}.

We assign a transmit vector \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) of size T×1 to source S _{ i } where each row corresponds to a time slot.

To each relay V _{ j }, we assign a receive matrix \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) of size T×d _{in}(V _{ j }), and we label each column with a source that has a route to that relay. The entry at row t and column labeled by S _{ i } in \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) is equal to the entry at row t of \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\).

We assign a transmit matrix \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\) of size \(T \times N_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) to each relay where each column corresponds to a SD pair i where the relay belongs to \(\mathcal {G}_{ii}\).

Finally, to each destination D _{ i }, we assign a receive matrix \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) of size \(T \times N_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) where each column corresponds to a route from a source S _{ j } through a specific relay \(\mathsf {V}_{j^{\prime }}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) and is labeled as \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}{\mathsf {S}_{j}:\mathsf {V}_{j^{\prime }}}\). The entry at row t and column labeled by \({\mathsf {S}_{j}:\mathsf { V}_{j^{\prime }}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) in \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) is equal to the entry at row t and column labeled by S _{ j } of \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {V}_{j^{\prime }}}\).
An assignment of transmit and receive matrices to the nodes in the network is valid if the following conditions are satisfied:
C.2 For any relay V _{ j }, using linear row operations \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) can be transformed into a matrix in which if \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathsf {V}_{j} \in \mathcal {G}_{ii}\), then ∃ ℓ such that all entries in row ℓ are zeros except for the column corresponding to source S _{ i }.
C.3 For destination D _{ i }, using linear row operations \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) can be transformed into a matrix in which ∃ ℓ such that the ℓ ^{ t h } row has only 1s in the columns corresponding to source S _{ i }, i=1,2,…,K.
Remark 3
Theorem 1
For a Kuser twolayer network \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathcal {G} = (\mathcal {V},\mathcal {E},\{ w_{ij} \}_{(i,j) \in \mathcal {E}})\) with 1local view if there exists a valid assignment of transmit and receive matrices, then all induced subgraphs can be reconstructed in T time slots and a normalized sum rate of \(\alpha = \frac {1}{T}\) is achievable.
Proof
We first prove the theorem for the linear deterministic model, and then, we provide the proof for the Gaussian model.
Network \(\mathcal {G}\) has K SD pairs. Consider the Kinduced subgraphs of all SD pairs, i.e., \(\mathcal {G}_{jj}\), j=1,2,…,K. We show that any transmission snapshot over these induced subgraphs can be implemented in \(\mathcal {G}\) over T time slots such that all nodes receive the same signal as if they were in their corresponding induced subgraphs.

Node V _{ i } (similarly a source) in the induced subgraph \(\mathcal {G}_{jj}\) transmits \(X^{j}_{V_{i}}\),

Node V _{ i } (similarly a destination) in the induced subgraph \(\mathcal {G}_{jj}\) receives$$\begin{array}{*{20}l} Y^{j}_{\mathsf{V}_{i}} = \sum_{i^{\prime} : (i^{\prime},i) \in \mathcal{E}}{\mathbf{S}^{qn_{i^{\prime} i}} X^{j}_{\mathsf{V}_{i^{\prime}}}}. \end{array} $$(21)

Source S _{ i } transmits$$\begin{array}{*{20}l} X_{\mathsf{S}_{i}}[t] = \mathbf{T}_{\mathsf{S}_{i}}(t) X^{i}_{\mathsf{S}_{i}}, \end{array} $$(22)

Each relay V _{ j } transmits$$\begin{array}{*{20}l} X_{\mathsf{V}_{j}}[t] = \sum_{i=1}^{K}{\mathbf{T}_{\mathsf{V}_{j}}(t,\mathsf{S}_{i}) X^{i}_{\mathsf{V}_{j}}}, \end{array} $$(23)
where t=1,…,T, and \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}(t,\mathsf {S}_{i})\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) is the entry at row t and the column corresponding to S _{ i } of \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\).
where summation is performed in \(\mathbb {F}_{2}^{q}\).
Reconstructing the received signals. Based on the transmission strategy described above, we need to show that at any node V _{ i } received signal \(Y^{j}_{\mathsf {V}_{i}}\) can be obtained.
Condition C.2 guarantees that using linear row operations, \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) can be transformed into a matrix in which if \(\mathsf {V}_{i} \in \mathcal {G}_{jj}\), then ∃ ℓ such that all entries in row ℓ are zeros except for the column corresponding to source S _{ j }. Note that linear operation in the linear deterministic model is simply the XOR operation. We note that two 1s in the same column of a receive matrix represent the same signals and the same channel gains. Thus, V _{ i } is able to cancel out all interference by appropriately summing the received signals at different time slots.
Similar argument holds for any destination D _{ i }. However, since it is possible that there exist multiple routes from S _{ i } to D _{ i }, more than a single 1 might be required after the row operations. In fact, condition C.3 guarantees that using linear row operations, destination D _{ i } can cancel out all interfering signals and only observe the intended signals from S _{ i }.
where t=1,…,T. To satisfy the power constraint at the nodes, we need \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\beta _{t,\mathsf {V}_{j}}\) to be the number of nonzero entries in row t of \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\).
Moreover, we need to show that with the row operations performed on received and transmit signals, the capacity of the reconstructed induced subgraphs is “close” to the capacity of the induced subgraphs when there is no interference. The following lemma shows that the capacity of the reconstructed induced subgraphs is within a constant number of bits of the capacity of the induced subgraphs with no interference. This constant is independent of the channel gains and transmit power P. □
Lemma 1
where \(\tau = \mathcal {V} \left (2 \log T + 17 \right)\) is a constant independent of the channel gains, P, and σ ^{2}.
Proof
where (a) follows from the fact that \(\frac {1+g_{ii}}{1+\frac {1}{T^{2}}g_{ii}}\) is monotonically increasing in g _{ ii }.
where \(\tau = \mathcal {V} \left (2 \log T + 17 \right)\) is a constant independent of the channel gains, P, and σ ^{2}. □
5 Optimality of the strategies
In this section, we consider several classes of networks and derive the minimum number of time slots such that all induced subgraphs can be reconstructed as if there is no interference present. In other words, we characterize the normalized sum capacity of such networks.
5.1 Singlelayer foldedchain networks
Definition 6
A singlelayer (K,m) foldedchain (1≤m≤K) network is a singlelayer network with K SD pairs. In this network, source S _{ i } is connected to destinations with ID’s 1+[{(i−1)^{+}+(j−1)}m o d K] where i=1,…,K, j=1,…,m and (i−1)^{+}= max{(i−1),0}.
Theorem 2
The normalized sum capacity of a singlelayer (K,m) foldedchain network with 1local view is \(\alpha ^{\ast } = \frac {1}{m}\).
To achieve the normalized sum capacity of a singlelayer (K,m) foldedchain network with 1local, we need to incorporate repetition coding at the sources. We note that a singlelayer (K,K) foldedchain network is a K user fully connected interference channel, and in that case, with 1local view, interference avoidance achieves the normalized sum capacity of 1/K.
Proof
Achievability: We provide a valid assignment of transmit and receive matrices to the nodes with T=m. Then, by Theorem 1, we know that a normalized sum rate of \(\frac {1}{m}\) is achievable.
□
Remark 4
For singlelayer foldedchain networks, the assignment of the transmit vectors in (35) is the same for the linear deterministic model and the Gaussian model.

C.1 is trivially satisfied since for any source S _{ i }, there exists at least one value of j such that \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}(j) = 1\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\).

C.2 is irrelevant since we have a singlelayer network, and no relay is present.

C.3 is satisfied since for 1≤i≤m, \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) has a single 1 in row i and the column labeled as S _{ i }, and for m<i<2m, the summation of rows i−m+1,…,i−1,i of \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {D}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) has a single 1 in the column labeled as S _{ i }.
Since conditions C.1C.3 are satisfied, from Theorem 1, we know that we can achieve \(\alpha = \frac {1}{m}\).
For general K, the achievability works as follows. Suppose, K=c(2m−1)+r, where c≥1 and 0≤r<(2m−1), we implement the scheme for SD pairs 1,2,…,2m−1 as if they are the only pairs in the network. The same for sourcedestination pairs 2m,2m+1,…,4m−2, etc. Finally, for the last r SD pairs, we implement the scheme with m ^{′}= max{r−m+1,1}. This completes the proof of achievability.
Since this has to hold for all values of h, and α and τ are independent of h, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{m}\). This completes the proof of Theorem 2.
5.2 K×2×K networks
We move to twolayer networks and start with a special class of networks defined below.
Definition 7
A K×2×K network is a twolayer network (as defined in Section 2.1) with \(\mathcal {V}2K = 2\).
We establish the normalized sum capacity of such networks in the following theorem.
Theorem 3
The normalized sum capacity of a K×2×K network with 1local view is α ^{∗}=1/d _{max} where d _{max} is defined in (7).
Proof

\(\mathcal {J}_{i}\) is the set of all the SD pair IDs such that the corresponding source is connected only to relay A _{ i }, i=1,2;

\(\mathcal {J}_{12}\) is the set of all the other SD pair IDs. In other words, \(\mathcal {J}_{12}\) is the set of all the SD pair IDs where the corresponding source is connected to both relays.
We pick the smallest member of \(\mathcal {J}_{1}\) and the smallest member of \(\mathcal {J}_{2}\), and we set the first entry of the corresponding transmit vectors equal to 1 and all other entries equal to zero. We remove these members from \(\mathcal {J}_{1}\) and \(\mathcal {J}_{2}\). Then, we pick two smallest members of (updated) \(\mathcal {J}_{1}\) and \(\mathcal {J}_{2}\) and we set the second entry of the corresponding transmit vectors equal to 1 and all other entries equal to zero. We continue this process until \(\mathcal {J}_{1}\) is empty. For any remaining SD pair ID j, we set the jth entry of the corresponding transmit vector equal to 1 and all other entries equal to zero.
In the second layer, we divide SD pair IDs based on the connection of destinations to relays, i.e., \(\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{i}\) is the set of all the SD pair IDs such that the corresponding destination is connected to relay A _{ i }, i=1,2, and \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{12}\) is the set of all the other SD pair IDs. To A _{ i }, we assign a transmit matrix of size \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}T \times \left (\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{i} + \mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{12} \right)\), i=1,2, as described below.
Without loss of generality assume that d _{out}(A _{2})≥d _{out}(A _{1}). We pick one member of \(\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{1}\) and one member of \(\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{2}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) randomly, and in the first row of \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {A}_{1}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) and \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {A}_{2}}\), we set the entry at the column corresponding to the picked indices equal to 1 and all other entries in those rows equal to zero. We remove these members from \(\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{1}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) and \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{2}\). We then pick one member of (updated) \(\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{1}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) and one member of (updated) \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{2}\) randomly, and in the second row of \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {A}_{1}}\) and \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {A}_{2}}\), we set the entry at the column corresponding to the picked indices equal to 1 and all other entries in those rows equal to zero. We continue this process until \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{1}\) is empty.
We then pick one of the remaining SD pair IDs (members of \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{12}\) and the remaining members of \(\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\mathcal {J}^{\prime }_{2}\)), and we assign a 1 in the next available row and to the column corresponding to the picked index in the corresponding transmit matrix. We set all other entries in those rows equal to zero. We continue the process until no SD pair ID is left.
Condition C.1 is trivially satisfied. The corresponding transmission strategy in this case would be a “per layer” interference avoidance, i.e., if in the first hop, two sources are connected to the same relay, they do not transmit simultaneously, and if in the second hop, two destinations are connected to the same relay, they are not going to be served simultaneously. Therefore, since the scheme does not allow any interference to be created, no row operations on the receive matrix is required and conditions C.2 and C.3 are satisfied.
Hence, from Theorem 1, we know that a normalized sum rate of \(\alpha = \frac {1}{d_{\max }}\) is achievable. □
Remark 5
For K×2×K networks, the assignment of the transmit vectors and matrices is the same for the linear deterministic model and the Gaussian model.
Converse: Assume that a normalized sum rate of α is achievable, we show that \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{d_{\max }}\). It is sufficient to consider two cases: (1) d _{max}=d _{in}(A _{1}) and (2) d _{max}=d _{out}(A _{1}). Here, we provide the proof for case (1) and we postpone the proof for case (2) to Appendix B.
The proof is based on finding a worstcase scenario. Thus, to derive the upper bound, we use specific assignment of channel gains. Consider D _{ j } for \(j \in \mathcal {J}_{1}\), any such destination is either connected to relay A _{1} or to both relays. If it is connected to both, then set the channel gain from relay A _{2} equal to 0. Follow similar steps for the members of \(\mathcal {J}_{2}\).
Now, consider D _{ j } for \(j \in \mathcal {J}_{12}\), such destination is either connected to only one relay or to both relays. If such destination is connected to both relays, assign the channel gain of 0 to one of the links connecting it to a relay (pick this link at random).
where ε _{ n }→0 as n→∞. Thus, relay A _{1} is able to decode all messages coming from sources corresponding to the members of \(\mathcal {J}_{1}\).
Note that \(d_{\text {in}}(\mathsf {A}_{1}) = \mathcal {J}_{1} + \mathcal {J}_{12}\).
Since this has to hold for all values of n, and α and τ are independent of n, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{d_{\text {in}}(\mathsf {A}_{1})}\).
Since this has to hold for all values of h, and α and τ are independent of h, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{d_{\text {in}}(\mathsf {A}_{1})}\).
This completes the proof of the converse.
5.3 3×3×3 networks
In this subsection, we consider twolayer networks with three sourcedestination pairs and three relays. We face networks in which we need to incorporate network coding techniques to achieve the normalized sum capacity with 1local view. The coding comes in the form of repetition coding at sources and a combination of repetition and network coding at relays.
Definition 8
A 3×3×3 network is a twolayer network (as defined in Section 2.1) with K=3 and \(\mathcal {V}2K = 3\).
Theorem 4
 1.
1 if and only if \(\mathcal {G}_{ii} \cap \mathcal {G}_{jj} = \emptyset \) for i≠j.
 2.1/3if and only if one of the graphs in Fig. 11 is a subgraph of the network connectivity graph \(\mathcal {G}\).
 3.
1/2 otherwise.
 1.
Per layer interference avoidance
 2.
Repetition coding to allow overhearing of the interference
 3.
Network coding to allow interference neutralization
Remark 6
From Theorems 3 and 4, we conclude that for all singlelayer, K×2×K, and 3×3×3 networks with 1local view, the normalized sum capacity α ^{∗}=1/K (i.e., TDMA) is optimal if and only if when all channel gains are equal and nonzero, then there exists a node that can decode all messages. We refer to such node as an “omniscient” node. We believe this observation holds for much more general network connectivities with 1local view or in fading networks with no channel state information at the transmitters. However, this is a different line of research and it is beyond the scope of this paper. Omniscient nodes are studied in [ 29 , 30 ] in the context of twosource twodestination multilayer wireless networks where they dictate the asymptotic (in terms of power) behavior of these networks.
Proof
Achievability: The achievability proof for networks in category (a) is trivial as there is no interference present in such networks. For networks in category (b), a simple TDMA achieves a normalized sum rate of 1/3. Thus, we only need to prove the result for networks in category (c).
Suppose none of the graphs in Fig. 11 is a subgraph of \(\mathcal {G}\) and that the network does not fall in category (a). This immediately implies d _{max}=2.
We have the following claim for such networks.
Claim 1
If the per layer conflict graphs are not fully connected and the network does not fall in category (a), then a normalized sum rate of α=1/2 is easily achievable. Moreover, from claim 1, we know that with d _{max}=2, the foldedchain structure of Fig. 12 exists in at least one of the layers. In Section 3, we showed that a normalized sum rate of α=1/2 is achievable.
We note that these cases can be easily described within the algebraic framework of Section 4. In fact, if the foldedchain structure of Fig. 12 exists in at least one of the layers, as shown in Section 3, the transmission can be expressed as a valid assignment of transmit and receive matrices. However, if the per layer conflict graphs are not fully connected and the network does not fall in category (a), then the scheme is a per layer interference avoidance which can be easily expressed in terms of a valid assignment of transmit and receive matrices. Finally, we note that for all 3×3×3 networks, the assignment of the transmit vectors and matrices is the same for the linear deterministic model and the Gaussian model.
Converse: The forward direction of the proof for networks in category (a) is trivial as there is no interference present in such networks. For the reverse direction as shown in Lemma 3 Appendix A, for any network that does not fall into category (a), an upper bound of 1/2 on the normalized sum capacity holds. Moreover, Lemma 3 also provides the outerbound for networks in category (c). Thus, we only need to consider 3×3×3 networks in category (b).
For 3×3×3 networks in category (b), we first consider the forward direction. One of the graphs in Fig. 11 is a subgraph of the network connectivity graph \(\mathcal {G}\), say the graph in Fig. 11b. Assign channel gain of \(n \in \mathbb {N}\) (in linear deterministic model) and \(h \in \mathbb {C}\) (in Gaussian model) to the links of the subgraph and channel gain of 0 to the links that are not in the graph of Fig. 11b.
Since this has to hold for all values of h, and α and τ are independent of h, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{3}\). The proof for the graphs in Fig. 11a, c is very similar.
For the reverse direction, if none of the graphs in Fig. 11 is a subgraph of the network connectivity graph \(\mathcal {G}\), a normalized sum rate of \(\alpha = \frac {1}{2}\) is achievable and optimal. This completes the converse proof.
5.4 Foldedchain networks
We now consider a class of networks for which we need to incorporate network coding in order to achieve the normalized sum capacity with 1local view. This class is the generalization of the networks in Section 5.1 to two layers.
Definition 9
A twolayer (K,m) foldedchain network (1≤m≤K) is a twolayer network with K SD pairs and K relays in the middle. Each SD pair i has m disjoint paths, through relays with indices 1+[{(i−1)^{+}+(j−1)}m o d K] where i=1,…,K, j=1,…,m.
Theorem 5
The normalized sum capacity of a twolayer (K,m) foldedchain network with 1local view is \(\alpha ^{\ast } = \frac {1}{m}\).
Proof
Achievability: The result is trivial for m=1. For m=K, the upper bound of \(\alpha = \frac {1}{K}\) can be achieved simply by using TDMA. Similar to Theorem 2, suppose m<K<2m. The extension to the general case would be similar to Theorem 2. Here, we describe how to construct a valid assignment of transmit and receive matrices.
The assignment of the transmit vectors in the first layer is identical to that of Theorem 2 as given in (35). We note that each relay can recover all incoming signals with this assignment. For the second layer, we have K+1 steps.
∙ Steps 1 through m: Our goal is to provide destination D _{ i }, 1≤i≤m, during time slot i with its desired signal without any interference. Therefore, row i of any relay connected to D _{ i } has a single 1 in the column associated with SD pair i and 0s elsewhere;
∙ Steps m+1 through K: During step i, m+1≤i≤K, our goal is to provide destination D _{ i } with its desired signal (interference will be handled later). To do so, consider the transmit matrix of any relay connected to s f D _{ i }; and place a single 1 in the column associated with SD pair i and the row with the smallest index and least number of 1s;
 1.
Let \(\mathcal {L}_{j}\) denote the set of row indices for which there exists at least 1 in the column associated with SD pair j of the transmit matrix of a relay connected to D _{ j }, m+1≤j≤K;
 2.Set j=m+1. For any j ^{′}≠j, j ^{′}=1,2,…,K, if$$\begin{array}{*{20}l} \sum_{p: \mathsf{V}_{p} \text{~connected~to~} \mathsf{D}_{j}}\sum_{\ell \in \mathcal{L}_{j}} \mathbf{T}_{\mathsf{V}_{p}}\left(\ell, \mathsf{ S}_{j^{\prime}} \right) \neq 0, \end{array} $$(57)
then make this summation 0 making any of the \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {V}_{p}}\left (\ell, \mathsf {S}_{j^{\prime }} \right)\)’s that is not previously assigned equal to 1^{4};
 3.
Set j=j+1; If j>K and during the previous loop no change has occurred, then set all entries that are not yet defined equal to zero and terminate; otherwise, go to line 2 of the loop.
It is easy to verify condition C.3 for destination D _{1}, D _{2}, and D _{3}. We have provided \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {D}_{4}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) in (53), and as we can see, by adding the first and the second row, we can have a row that has only 1s in the columns corresponding to source S _{4}. Similarly, we can show that the condition holds for D _{5}.
with error probabilities going to zero as N→∞ and for some constant τ∈R independent of the channel gains.
Since this has to hold for all values of h, and α and τ are independent of h, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{m}\). □
5.5 Gain of coding over interference avoidance: nested foldedchain networks
In this subsection, we show that the gain from using coding over interference avoidance techniques can be unbounded. To do so, we first define the following class of networks.
Definition 10

The ith source in the first copy is connected to the ith destination in the second copy, i=1,…,3^{ L−1},

The ith source in the second copy is connected to the ith destination in the third copy, i=1,…,3^{ L−1},

The ith source in the third copy is connected to the ith destination in the first copy, i=1,…,3^{ L−1}.
Consider an Lnested foldedchain network. The conflict graph of this network is fully connected, and as a result, interference avoidance techniques can only achieve a normalized sum rate of \(\left (\frac {1}{3} \right)^{L}\). However, we know that for a singlelayer (3,2) foldedchain network, a normalized sum rate of \(\frac {1}{2}\) is achievable.
Hence, applying our scheme to an Lnested foldedchain network, a normalized sum rate of \(\left (\frac {1}{2} \right)^{L}\) is achievable. For instance, consider the 2nested foldedchain network in Fig. 16. We show that any transmission strategy over the induced subgraphs can be implemented in the original network by using only four time slots such that all nodes receive the same signal as if they were in the induced subgraphs.
To achieve a normalized sum rate of \(\alpha = \left (\frac {1}{2} \right)^{2}\), we split the communication block into four time slots of equal length. During time slot 1, sources 1, 2, 4, and 5 transmit the same codewords as if they are in the induced subgraphs. During time slot 2, sources 3 and 6 transmit the same codewords as if they are in the induced subgraphs, and sources 2 and 5 repeat their transmit signal from the first time slot. During time slot 3, sources 7 and 8 transmit the same codewords as if they are in the induced subgraphs, and sources 4 and 5 repeat their transmit signal from the first time slot. During time slot 4, source 9 transmits the same codewords as if it is in the induced subgraph, and sources 5, 6, and 8 repeat their transmit signal.
Lemma 2
Consider an Lnested foldedchain network. The gain of using MCL scheduling over MIL scheduling is \(\left (\frac {3}{2} \right)^{L}\) which goes to infinity as L→∞.
The scheme required to achieve a normalized sum rate of \(\alpha = \left (\frac {1}{2} \right)^{L}\) for an Lnested foldedchain network can be viewed as a simple extension of the results presented in Section 4. In a sense instead of reconstructing a single snapshot, we reconstruct L snapshots of the network. The following discussion is just for the completion of the results.
To each source S _{ i }, we assign a transmit vector \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) of size (L T)×1 where each row corresponds to a time slot. If we denote the transmit signal of node S _{ i } in the ℓth snapshot by \(X^{\ell }_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}\), then if \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {S}_{i}}(j) = 1\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) and c T+1≤j<(c+1)T for c=0,1,…,L−1, then S _{ i } communicates \(X^{c+1}_{\mathsf { S}_{i}}\). The other transmit and receive matrices can be described similarly. Conditions C.2 and C.3 have to be satisfied for submatrices of \(\mathbf {R}_{\mathsf {V}_{j}}\phantom {\dot {i}\!}\) corresponding to rows c T+1,c T+2,…,(c+1)T−1 for c=0,1,…,L−1.
6 Conclusions
In this paper, we studied the fundamental limits of communications over multilayer wireless networks where each node has limited channel state information. We developed a new transmission strategy for multilayer wireless networks with partial channel state information (i.e., 1local view) that combines multiple ideas including interference avoidance and network coding. We established the optimality of our proposed strategy for several classes of networks in terms of achieving the normalized sum capacity. We also demonstrated several connections between network topology, normalized sum capacity, and the achievability strategies.
So far, we have only studied cases with 1local view. One major direction is to characterize the increase in normalized sum capacity as nodes learn more and more about the channel state information. We also focused on the case in which wireless nodes know the network connectivity globally, but the actual values of the channel gains are known for a subset of flows. Another important direction would be to understand the impact of local connectivity knowledge on the capacity and to develop distributed strategies to optimally route information with partial connectivity knowledge.
7 Endnotes
^{1} Since in two time slots, any transmission strategy for the diamond networks can be implemented in the original network, we can implement the strategies that achieve the capacity for any SD pair i with full network knowledge, i.e., C _{ i }, over two time slots as well. Hence, we can achieve \(\frac {1}{2} \left (C_{1} + C_{2} + C_{3} \right)\). On the other hand, we have C _{sum}≤C _{1}+C _{2}+C _{3}. As a result, we can achieve a set of rates such that \(\sum _{i=1}^{3}{R_{i}} \geq \frac {1}{2} C_{\text {sum}}\), and by the definition of normalized sum rate, we achieve \(\alpha = \frac {1}{2}\).
^{2} A cut Ω is a subset of \(\mathcal {V}\) such that S∈Ω,D∉Ω, and \(\Omega ^{c} = \mathcal {V} \setminus \Omega \).
^{3} The result for m=1 is trivial since we basically have an interferencefree network.
^{4} If \(\mathbf {T}_{\mathsf {V}_{p}}\left (\ell, \mathsf {S}_{j^{\prime }} \right)\) is not yet assigned a 0 or 1, treat it as 0 in the summation.
8 Appendix A: Outerbound of 1/2 for networks with interference
Lemma 3
In a Kuser multilayer network (linear deterministic or Gaussian) with 1local view if there exists a path from S _{ i } to D _{ j }, for some i≠j, then the normalized sum capacity is upperbounded by α=1/2.
Proof
In order to guarantee a normalized sum rate of α with 1local view, each source has to transmit at a rate greater than or equal to α n−τ (for the linear deterministic model) or α log(1+h^{2})−τ (for the Gaussian model). This is due to the fact that from each source’s point of view, it is possible that the other SD pairs have capacity 0.
Suppose this rate is feasible, i.e., destinations D _{ i } and D _{ j } are able to decode W_{ i } and W_{ j }, respectively. Since there exists a path from source S _{ i } to destination D _{ j }, i≠j, i,j∈{1,…,K}, we can find a node \(\mathsf {V}^{\ast } \in \mathcal {V}\) such that \(\mathsf {V}^{\ast } \in \mathcal {G}_{ij}\) and \(\mathsf {V}^{\ast } \in \mathcal {G}_{jj}\), see Fig. 18. Node V ^{∗} is able to decode W_{ j } since it has more information than destination D _{ j }. Node V ^{∗} decodes W_{ j } and removes it from the received signal. Now, for the Gaussian model, it has statistically the same received signal as node \(\bar {\mathsf {V}}\) (a node in \(\mathcal {G}_{ii}\) and in the same layer as V ^{∗}) and for the linear deterministic model, it has the same received signal as node \(\bar {\mathsf {V}}\). Node \(\bar {\mathsf {V}}\) is able to decode W_{ i } since it has more information than destination D _{ i }., as a result, V ^{∗} is also able to decode W_{ i }. This means that there exists a node \(\mathsf {V}^{\ast } \in \mathcal {V}\) that can decode both W_{ i } and W_{ j }.
Since this has to hold for all values of n, and α and τ are independent of n, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{2}\).
Since this has to hold for all values of h, and α and τ are independent of h, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{2}\). □
9 Appendix B: Converse proof for case (2) of Theorem 3
Converse proof for case (2): If a destination is only connected to relay A _{2}, assign channel gain of 0 to the link from A _{2} to such destination. Set all the other channel gains equal to \(n \in \mathbb {N}\) (in the linear deterministic model) and equal to \(h \in \mathbb {C}\) (in the Gaussian model). We claim that with this channel gain assignment, a destination connected to both relays should be able to decode all messages (note that with our choice of channel gains, there is no message for destinations that are only connected to relay A _{2}).
Destinations that are connected to both relays receive the exact same signal (in the linear deterministic model) and the same codewords plus different noise terms (in the Gaussian model). Therefore, since each one of them is able to decode its message, then it should be able to decode the rest of the messages intended for destinations that are connected to both relays. They decode and remove such messages from the received signal. The remaining signal is the same codeword (plus different noise term in Gaussian model) received at the destinations that are only connected to relay A _{1}. Therefore, those messages are also decodable at a destination that is connected to both relays.
Since this has to hold for all values of n, and α and τ are independent of n, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{d_{\text {out}}({ \sf A}_{1})}\).
Since this has to hold for all values of h, and α and τ are independent of h, we get \(\alpha \leq \frac {1}{d_{\text {out}}(\mathsf {A}_{1})}\).
Declarations
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Kanes Sutuntivorakoon of Rice University for helpful discussions related to Section V. C of this paper.
Funding
The work of A. Vahid is in part supported by Qualcomm Innovation Fellowship. The work of A. S. Avestimehr is in part supported by NSF grant CCF1419632 and ONR award N000141612189.
Authors’ contributions
This work was done by AV as part of his PhD studies. He was advised by Professors VA, ASA, and AS. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Publisher’s Note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
 A Vahid, V Aggarwal, AS Avestimehr, A Sabharwal, in 48th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing. On the capacity of multihop wireless networks with partial network knowledge (IEEEAllerton Park, Monticello, 2010), pp. 1030–1037.Google Scholar
 V Aggarwal, AS Avestimehr, A Sabharwal, On achieving local view capacity via maximal independent graph scheduling. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 57(5), 2711–2729 (2011).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 SA Jafar, Topological interference management through index coding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 60(1), 529–568 (2014).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 H Maleki, VR Cadambe, SA Jafar, Index coding—an interference alignment perspective. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 60(9), 5402–5432 (2014).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 M Ji, G Caire, AF Molisch, Fundamental limits of caching in wireless D2D networks. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 62(2), 849–869 (2016).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 N Naderializadeh, AS Avestimehr, Interference networks with no CSIT: impact of topology. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 61(2), 917–938 (2015).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 H Sun, C Geng, SA Jafar, in IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory Proceedings (ISIT). Topological interference management with alternating connectivity (IEEEIstanbul, 2013), pp. 399–403.Google Scholar
 X Yi, D Gesbert, Topological interference management with transmitter cooperation. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 61(11), 6107–6130 (2015).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 N Naderializadeh, AS Avestimehr, ITLinQ: A new approach for spectrum sharing in devicetodevice communication systems. IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun. 32(6), 1139–1151 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 V Aggarwal, L Sankar, AR Calderbank, HV Poor. Ergodic layered erasure onesided interference channels (IEEETaormina, 2009), pp. 574–578.Google Scholar
 C Wang, T Gou, SA Jafar, Aiming perfectly in the darkblind interference alignment through staggered antenna switching. IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 59(6), 2734–2744 (2011).MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
 SA Jafar, in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010). Exploiting channel correlationssimple interference alignment schemes with no CSIT (IEEEMiami, 2010), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
 A Vahid, MA MaddahAli, AS Avestimehr, Y Zhu, Binary fading interference channel with no CSIT. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 63(6), 3565–3578 (2017).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 H Maleki, SA Jafar, S Shamai, Retrospective interference alignment over interference networks. IEEE J. Selected Topics Signal Process. 6(3), 228–240 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 CS Vaze, MK Varanasi, The degrees of freedom region and interference alignment for the MIMO interference channel with delayed CSIT. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 58(7), 4396–4417 (2012).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 A Vahid, MA MaddahAli, AS Avestimehr, Capacity results for binary fading interference channels with delayed CSIT. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 60(10), 6093–6130 (2014).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 MA MaddahAli, D Tse, Completely stale transmitter channel state information is still very useful. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 58(7), 4418–4431 (2012).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 A Vahid, MA MaddahAli, AS Avestimehr, Approximate capacity region of the MISO broadcast channels with delayed CSIT. IEEE Trans. Commun. 64(7), 2913–2924 (2016).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 A Vahid, MA MaddahAli, AS Avestimehr, Communication through collisions: opportunistic utilization of past receptions (IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Toronto, 2014).Google Scholar
 A Vahid, R Calderbank, in 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). Impact of local delayed CSIT on the capacity region of the twouser interference channel (IEEEHong Kong, 2015), pp. 2421–2425.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 A Vahid, R Calderbank, in 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). When does spatial correlation add value to delayed channel state information? (IEEEBarcelona, 2016), pp. 2624–2628.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 A Vahid, R Calderbank, Twouser erasure interference channels with local delayed CSIT. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 62(9), 4910–4923 (2016).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 OE Ayach, RW Heath Jr, Interference alignment with analog channel state feedback. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. 11(2), 626–636 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 V Aggarwal, Y Liu, A Sabharwal, in Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). Message passing in distributed wireless networks (IEEESeoul, 2009), pp. 1090–1094.Google Scholar
 V Aggarwal, Y Liu, A Sabharwal, Sum capacity of interference channels with a local view: impact of distributed decisions. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 58(3), 1630–1659 (2012).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 D Blackwell, L Breiman, AJ Thomasian, The capacity of a class of channels. Ann. Math. Stat. 30:, 1229–1241 (1959).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 A Raja, VM Prabhakaran, P Viswanath, The two user Gaussian compound interference channel. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 55(11), 5100–5120 (2009).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 AS Avestimehr, S Diggavi, D Tse, Wireless network information flow: a deterministic approach. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 57(4), 1872–1905 (2011).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 I Shomorony, AS Avestimehr, Twounicast wireless networks: characterizing the degrees of freedom. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 59(1), 353–383 (2013).MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 A Vahid, I Shomorony, R Calderbank, in 53rd Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing. Informational bottlenecks in twounicast wireless networks with delayed CSIT (IEEEAllerton Park, Monticello, 2015), pp. 1256–1263.Google Scholar