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Privacyaware crosscloud service recommendations based on Boolean historical invocation records
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking volume 2019, Article number: 101 (2019)
Abstract
In the age of big data, service recommendation has provided an effective manner to filter valuable information from massive data. Generally, by observing the past service invocation records (Boolean values) distributed across different cloud platforms, a recommender system can infer personalized preferences of a user and recommend him/her new services to gain more profits. However, the historical service invocation records are a kind of private information for users. Therefore, how to protect sensitive user data distributed across multiple cloud platforms is becoming a necessity for successful service recommendations. Additionally, the historical service invocation records often update with time, which call for an efficient and scalable service recommendation method. In view of these challenges, we introduce the multiprobe Simhash technique in information retrieval domain into the recommendation process and further put forward a privacypreserving recommendation method based on historical service invocation records. At last, we design several experiments on the realworld service quality data in set WSDREAM. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal in terms of producing accurate recommended results while protecting users’ private information contained in historical service invocation records.
Introduction
With the advent of the big data age, the volume and variety of available data both increase quickly, which make it hard for a user to select valuable information that matches his/her preferences [1,2,3,4]. Therefore, to decrease the heavy burden on users’ service selection decisions, diverse service recommendation techniques are brought forth accordingly [5, 6]. Typically, through analyzing the service lists everexecuted or everinvoked by historical users, a recommender system, such as the collaborative filtering (CF) recommender system, can infer the possible user preferences and find the users who are similar with a target user (i.e., the “friends” of the target user); afterward, appropriate new services are recommended to the target user according to the service list everexecuted by his/her similar friends. This way, users’ decisionmaking cost on service selection declines significantly, with the help of lightweight recommender systems based on CF technique. Today, intelligent service recommendation techniques have already been successfully applied to various domains [7].
However, traditional service recommendation methods (e.g., CFbased methods) have several obvious shortcomings. First of all, we need to calculate the user similarity or item similarity in CF methods so as to find similar users or similar services for further recommendations. While the abovementioned similarity calculation process requires the historical service quality data (e.g., response time of a service invocation) generated from past service invocations, which may reveal the private information of users contained in the released service quality data, especially in the distributed environment [8,9,10,11,12,13,14] where the decisionmaking data for recommendations are distributed across multiple cloud platforms with conflict of interest. In this situation, how to utilize the lesssensitive Boolean service invocation records (i.e., whether a user u has invoked a web service ws; typically, if u invoked ws in the past, then (u, ws) pair is equal to 1; otherwise, 0) instead of real service quality data containing much private information of users becomes a necessary but challenging task.
Second, the historical service invocation records often update frequently, which requires a recommended method to quickly output an optimal recommendation solution for a target user. While traditional CF methods often fail to deliver a quick and accurate recommended list as user similarity or item similarity needs to be calculated repeatedly when the historical service invocation records are updated frequently.
Considering these drawbacks, the Simhash technique that is popular in privacyaware information retrieval is introduced into the recommendation domain. Afterward, we modify Simhash to be multiprobe Simhash (MPS) and bring forth a privacyaware recommendation method based on MPS, named Rec_{MPS}, to avoid the probably returned too many or too few recommended results. Overall, our major contributions are summarized as below:
(1) We recognize a novel service recommendation scenario where the service recommendation decisionmakings are not based on historical service quality values containing much user privacy but based on lesssensitive Boolean service invocation records stored in different cloud platforms.
(2) We modify Simhash technique into multiprobe Simhash, i.e., MPS and bring forth a privacypreserving recommendation method based on MPS and historical service invocation records, i.e., Rec_{MPS}.
(3) Through experiments on WSDREAM dataset, we show the major advantages of our proposal compared to other competitive work.
The organizational structure of our paper is summarized as below. In Section 2, the related work is briefly introduced. We formulate the privacypreserving service recommendation problems based on historical service invocation records in Section 3. Section 4 presents the proposed recommendation method Rec_{MPS} that is based on the multiprobe Simhash technique. Extensive experiments executed in Section 5 demonstrates the feasibility of Rec_{MPS}. At last, in Section 6, we conclude the whole paper and point out the prospective improvement directions in future research.
Related work
Next, we introduce the related work associated with this paper from the following two aspects: accuracyoriented web service recommendations and privacyaware web service recommendations.
Accuracyoriented web service recommendations
Collaborative filtering is a promising recommendation technique widely adopted in existing recommender systems, e.g., itembased collaborative filtering [15]. Generally, the CF recommendation methods can first look for the users who are similar with a target user or look for the services which are similar to a target service, based on the historical service quality data; afterward, the appropriate services that may be preferred by the target user are filtered out and put into the final recommended list. As service execution environment is often not fixed but varied, the service quality data are also dynamic and dependent on the service running context, such as service running time and location information; considering this, several contextaware recommendation methods are proposed to enact more accurate recommendation decisions, e.g., locationbased CF [16] and timebased CF [17]. While the abovementioned CF variants have an obvious shortcoming, i.e., they only recruit objective decision data (e.g., historical service quality) for recommendations, while neglecting other key factors that may affect a target user’s recommendation decisionmakings, e.g., users’ personalized preferences. In view of this shortcoming, CF recommendation methods are improved in [18] by considering the preferences of users, to support personalized and preferenceaware service selection decisions of different users.
However, in the above CFbased recommendation variants, the data for recommendation decisions (e.g., historical service quality) are often supposed to be centralized. Namely, existing methods seldom consider the multisource recommendation problems in which the data are distributed. Furthermore, existing CFbased recommendation methods seldom consider the privacy leakage risks when the multisource decisionmaking data are needed to be integrated or fused together for more comprehensive and rational service recommendations.
Privacypreserving web service recommendations
Privacypreservation is a crucial goal in a distributed environment. To achieve the goal of privacy protection, in [19], a service user is advised to release only partial service quality data observed by him/her; thus, most private information of users are protected and secure. There is often a tradeoff between the amount of published service quality data and the accuracy of final recommended results, which is observed and studied in [20]. Furthermore, the authors regard the size of the released data as a variable parameter and convert the sensitive recommendation problem into one about the parameter successfully. However, in the above method, the private information contained in the published data is still at risk and may be exposed to the outside world.
Data encryption is a popular way to achieve the privacypreservation goal in recommendations. However, as a heavyweight data protection mechanism, encryption may bring heavy computational cost and transmission delay, and hence is often not applicable to the recommendation scenarios with little computational capabilities [21, 22]. Kanonymity strategies are employed in [23] to hide the real data and make sure that user privacy is secure. However, the anonymous data are often of low availability and therefore, the accuracy of recommended results is decreased accordingly.
In order to solve the above challenge, in [24], the data are firstly obfuscated and then the obfuscated data are recruited to recommend appropriate new service items to the target users; this way, the sensitive information of the target users are secure. However, the accuracy of recommended results is not as high as expected; this is because the obfuscated data, not real data, are employed to make recommendation decisions. In [25], the sensitive QoS data are firstly split into multiple pieces (i.e., QoS pieces); and then the QoS pieces are sent to different users for storage; finally, the lesssensitive QoS pieces are utilized as the service recommendation bases. This method can achieve a partial privacypreservation goal in service recommendation; however, it still fails to protect other key user privacy information, e.g., the set of web services that were executed by different users in the past.
Differential privacy (DP) is regarded as an effective way for privacyaware service recommendation in [26]. Typically, through DP, the real service quality data are first confused by the injected noise data and then sent to recommender systems for decisionmakings. Thus, the sensitive information contained in the real service quality data can be protected very well. While the time costs of DPbased recommendation solutions are generally high; therefore, the time delay is often high enough. Besides, the accuracy of the returned recommended list would be reduced to some extent when the accumulated noise data after DP are high.
Localitysensitive hashing (LSH) technique is employed in work [8, 9, 17, 21, 22] to protect the sensitive QoS values generated from historical invocations. However, these work focus more on protecting the historical QoS values (typically, continuous values) instead of the historical service invocation records (Boolean values) that we focus on in this paper.
Considering the drawbacks of existing methods, a privacypreserving recommendation method named Rec_{MPS} is suggested, which will be specified in detail in the rest of this paper.
Formulation
For a better understanding of our proposal, we introduce the symbols to be used in the subsequent paragraphs. Concretely, we assume that there are m users {u_{1}, …, u_{m}} and n web services {ws_{1}, …, ws_{n}}; u* is a target user waiting for a recommended list from the recommender system; historical service invocation records are depicted by r_{i,j} (1 ≤ i ≤ m, 1 ≤ j ≤ n) that indicates whether u_{i} has invoked ws_{j} in the past: r_{i,j} = 1 if the answer is yes, otherwise r_{i,j} = 0.
Compared to the real service quality of services invoked by historical users, the service invocation records (i.e., the Boolean values r_{i,j}) are less sensitive. However, we argue that the values of r_{i,j} (1 ≤ i ≤ m, 1 ≤ j ≤ n) are still a kind of private information for users. Therefore, the problem that we need to solve in this paper can be clarified as below: a recommender system needs to analyze the preferences of u* and make appropriate recommendations to u* based on the r_{i,j} values produced from past service invocations without revealing the real r_{i,j} values. In the next section, we will introduce our resolution to this problem.
Service recommendation based on multiprobe Simhash
Next, we will detail the concrete algorithm of Rec_{MPS}. The general idea of Rec_{MPS} is first, we create less sensitive user indices based on historical service invocation records and Simhash (as Simhash is more suitable for protecting the Boolean data compared to other hash variants), and find neighbors of target user u* based on user indices; second, to avoid too few (even null) or too many returned neighbors of u*, multiprobe Simhash strategy is adopted; finally, optimal recommendations are made to u* based on the returned neighbors of u*. Next, we will elaborate on the concrete process of Rec_{MPS}.
Step 1: create less sensitive user indices and find neighbors of target user u* based on user indices
Historical service invocation records of n service {ws_{1}, …, ws_{n}} by m users {u_{1}, …, u_{m}} can be represented by the matrix in (1), where r_{i,j} is a Boolean value indicating whether u_{i} has invoked ws_{j} in the past. Thus, each row vector (r_{i,1}, …, r_{i,n}) denotes the historical service invocation records of user u_{i}. As a service community often contains a large number of web services, i.e., n is large, vector (r_{i,1}, …, r_{i,n}) for user u_{i} is often highdimensional and hence requires much computational time when (r_{i,1}, …, r_{i,n}) takes part in the subsequent service recommendation process. Therefore, to reduce the time cost, Simhash technique is employed to convert the highdimensional vector (r_{i,1}, …, r_{i,n}) for u_{i} into a lowdimensional vector for u_{i}, i.e., (R_{i,1}, …, R_{i,p}) where p = \( \left\lceil {\log}_2^n\right\rceil \) holds.
Next, we introduce the concrete conversion process. Each of the n services {ws_{1}, …, ws_{n}} is recoded according to binary code (the number of 0/1 bits is equal to p). For example, ws_{1} = (0, 0, …, 0, 0, 1), ws_{2} = (0, 0, …, 0, 1, 0), ws_{3} = (0, 0, …, 0, 1, 1), and so on. Assume that u_{i} has invoked n_{1} services (n_{1} ≤ n), then we pick these n_{1} services as well as their binary codes to form an n_{1}*p matrix constituted by 0 and 1. For example, if there are totally 30 candidate web services (here, p = \( \left\lceil {\log}_2^{30}\right\rceil \) = 5) and u_{i} has invoked ws_{1} and ws_{3}, then we can derive a 2*5 0/1 matrix in (2). Next, we substitute “− 1” for the element “0” in (2). Thus, we can obtain another 2*5 matrix in (3) where each entry is either − 1 or 1.
u_{i}: \( \left[\begin{array}{l}0\kern0.5em 0\kern0.5em 0\kern0.5em 0\kern0.5em 1\\ {}\begin{array}{ccc}0& 0& \begin{array}{ccc}0& 1& 1\end{array}\end{array}\end{array}\right] \) (2).
u_{i}: \( \left[\begin{array}{l}1\kern0.5em 1\kern0.5em 1\kern0.5em \begin{array}{cc}1& 1\end{array}\\ {}\begin{array}{ccc}1& 1& \begin{array}{ccc}1&\ 1&\ 1\end{array}\end{array}\end{array}\right] \) (3).
For the − 1/1 matrix in (3), we calculate the sum of each column and then obtain a 5dimensional vector H (u_{i}) = (− 2, − 2, − 2, 0, 2). Afterward, in vector H (u_{i}), we substitute “0” for the negative entries and substitute “1” for the positive entries. Then, we obtain a new 5dimensional 0/1 vector (0, 0, 0, 0, 1), which can be considered as the index for user u_{i}, denoted by h (u_{i}). Here, index h (u_{i}) has two advantages: first, h (u_{i}) is less sensitive as it contains little even no private information of user u_{i}; second, h (u_{i}) is a lowdimensional vector (R_{i,1}, …, R_{i,p}) compared to the original highdimensional vector (r_{i,1}, …, r_{i,n}) for user u_{i}.
Next, with the user indices h (u_{i}) (1 ≤ i ≤ m), we can look for the similar users (i.e., neighbors) of target user u*. Concretely, if index values h (u_{i}) = h(u*) holds, then u_{i} is deemed as a qualified neighbor of u* with high probability according to the Simhash theory.
Step 2: improved neighbor search for target user u* based on multiprobe Simhash
In Step 1, neighbors of target user u* can be discovered and returned for recommendation decisionmakings based on Simhash technique. However, the neighbor search condition in Step 1, i.e., h (u_{i}) = h(u*) cannot always work well as it is probably too loose or too tight in certain situations. Concretely, if the condition h (u_{i}) = h(u*) is too loose, then too many neighbors of target user u* can be returned, which may reduce the recommendation accuracy to some extent; otherwise, if the condition h (u_{i}) = h(u*) is too tight, then few (even null) neighbors of target user u* will be returned, which may decrease the recommendation feasibility. In other words, the traditional Simhash technique needs to be improved or modified to avoid the probably returned too many or too few (even null) neighbors of u*.
Next, we improve the traditional Simhash technique to be multiprobe Simhash. Concretely, if the neighbor search condition h (u_{i}) = h(u*) is too loose, then we will tighten it; otherwise, if the neighbor search condition h (u_{i}) = h(u*) is too tight, then we will loosen it to some extent.
Case 1: search condition relaxation
The neighbor search condition h (u_{i}) = h(u*) introduced in Step 1 is probably too rigid or tight in certain situations and thereby finds too few (even null) neighbors of the target user u*. In this situation, we need to relax the too tight neighbor search condition h (u_{i}) = h(u*) so that the number of returned neighbors of u* can exceed the predefined threshold P.
Next, we elaborate on the concrete condition relaxation process. Suppose h (u_{i}) = (R_{i,1}, …, R_{i,p}) and h(u*) = (R_{*,1}, …, R_{*,p}), then h (u_{i}) ⊕ h(u*) can be defined as in (4). Thus the original neighbor search condition that is too tight, i.e., h (u_{i}) = h(u*) can be converted into another condition h (u_{i}) ⊕ h(u*) = 0. Therefore, we can relax the neighbor search condition to be h (u_{i}) ⊕ h(u*) = 1 or 2 or 3 or … or p, depending on the number of returned neighbors of u* according to the neighbor search condition. At last, the returned neighbors of u* are put into set Neig_Set.
h (u_{i}) ⊕ h(u*).
= (R_{i,1} ⊕ R_{*,1}) + (R_{i,2} ⊕ R_{*,2}) + … + (R_{i,p} ⊕ R_{*,p}) (4).
Case 2: search condition tightness
In Step 1, user index h (u_{i}) is a super simplification (i.e., coarsegrained expression) of the historical service invocation records of user u_{i}, e.g., h (u_{i}) = (0, 0, 0, 0, 1) holds in the example of Step 1. While coarsegrained h (u_{i}) may lead to too loose search condition (i.e., h (u_{i}) = h(u*)) for the neighbors of target user u*. Considering this drawback, we use relatively finegrained index for u_{i}, i.e., H (u_{i}) (in the example of Step 1, H (u_{i}) = (− 2, − 2, − 2, 0, 2) holds) to replace coarsegrained h (u_{i}) so as to tighten the search condition and produce fewer neighbors of target user u*.
Concretely, if H (u_{i}) = H(u*) holds, we can reach a conclusion that u_{i} and u* are similar users because H (u_{i}) = H(u*) is a tighter neighbor search condition compared to the original condition h (u_{i}) = h(u*). Therefore, through H (u_{i}) = H(u*), we can expect to obtain fewer but more similar neighbors of u*. However, if condition H (u_{i}) = H(u*) is too tight, then an appropriate relaxation is necessary. Concretely, we do not expect H (u_{i}) = H(u*) (i.e., H (u_{i}) ⊕ H(u*) = 0) but expect the result of xor operation H (u_{i}) ⊕ H(u*) is close to 0. This way, we can relax the neighbor search condition if H (u_{i}) = H(u*) is too tight. Concrete condition relaxation degree denoted by the value of H (u_{i}) ⊕ H(u*) depends on the predefined threshold P of the number of u*‘s neighbors. At last, the returned neighbors of u* are put into set Neig_Set.
(3) Step 3: recommend new services to target user u* through returned neighbors in Neig_Set
For each user u_{i} in Neig_Set, if he or she has invoked candidate service ws_{j} (1 ≤ j ≤ n) in the past, i.e., r_{i,j} = 1, then u_{i} is put into a new set Neig_Set*; furthermore, ws_{j}’s historical quality value by u_{i} (denoted by q_{i,j}) can be used to predict the missing quality value of ws_{j} by the target user u* (denoted by q_{*,j}), based on the prediction equation in (5), where  Neig_Set*  is the size of set Neig_Set*.
q_{*,j} = \( \frac{1}{\mid \mathrm{Neig}\_{\mathrm{Set}}^{\ast}\mid}\ast \sum \limits_{u_i\in \mathrm{Neig}\_\mathrm{Set}\ast }{q}_{i,j} \) (5).
Thus, for each candidate service ws_{j} (1 ≤ j ≤ n) that has never been executed by the target user u*, its missing quality value invoked by u*, i.e., q_{*,j} can be predicted by (5). Finally, we select one candidate service with the optimal predicted value q_{*,j} and recommend it to u*. This is the end of our suggested recommendation method Rec_{MPS}.
Experiments
Experiment configurations
To demonstrate the feasibility of Rec_{MPS} method, we deploy extensive experiments with popular WSDREAM dataset [12]. This dataset contains the historical QoS data of 4532 services collected by 142 users. We extract the Boolean (user, service) pairs from these QoS data for experiment purpose. To show the advantages of our solution, we compare Rec_{MPS} method with three stateoftheart methods, e.g., DistSR_{LSH} [27], WSRec [28], and ICF (itembased CF). We compare the performances of the four methods in terms of recommendation accuracy (via RMSE) and efficiency. Each set of experiments is executed 100 times and we record their average results. The experiment hardware and software configurations are as follows: 2.80 GHz processor, 8.0 GB RAM, Windows 10, and JAVA 8.
Experiment results
Profile 1: accuracy comparison with competitive methods
Through comparing the predicted QoS values and real QoS values, we can test the accuracy of the recommended results for different methods. Here, we use RMSE (the smaller the better) to measure the accuracy. The parameters are set as follows: the size of user set, i.e., m = 142, the size of service set, i.e., n = {500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000}, threshold P = 3. Experiment results are demonstrated in Fig. 1.
As Fig. 1 shows, the RMSE value of Rec_{MPS} is smaller than those of the rest three methods, which indicates that Rec_{MPS} can achieve higher recommendation performance in terms of accuracy. The reason is (1) WSRec and ICF are mainly collaborative filteringbased neighbor search methods and hence cannot avoid too many or too few (even null) returned neighboring users or neighboring services, while too many or too few (even null) returned neighbors for recommendation decisionmakings may fluctuate or decrease the recommendation accuracy; (2) DistSR_{LSH} is more suitable for protecting the QoS values that are real number instead of the historical service invocation records (Boolean values) that we focus on in this paper. While our proposed Rec_{MPS} method is designed for protecting the Boolean service invocation records that are sensitive to users; therefore, high recommendation accuracy can be guaranteed.
Profile2: efficiency comparison with competitive methods
Next, we test the time costs of different methods as efficiency and scalability are also important factors that influence the recommendation performances and user satisfaction. Concrete parameters are set as follows: m = 142, n = {500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000}, threshold P = 3. Experiment results are presented in Fig. 2.
As can be observed from Fig. 2, the time costs of four methods approximately rise with the growth of n; this is because more computational time is needed to find out an optimal service that is preferred by the target user from a bigger volume of candidate services. Another observation is that DistSR_{LSH} and Rec_{MPS} methods outperform WSRec and ICF methods in terms of efficiency and scalability as additional privacypreservation strategies are recruited in the former two methods. Although Rec_{MPS} does not perform better than DistSR_{LSH} in terms of efficiency, the time cost of Rec_{MPS} is still acceptable in most cases (generally, smaller than 1 s as shown in Fig. 2).
Profile 3: accuracy of Rec_{MPS} with respect to n and P
We investigate the relationship between accuracy of Rec_{MPS} method and parameters n and P. Parameter settings are listed as below: m = 142, n = {500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000}, threshold P = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}. Experiment results are demonstrated in Fig. 3. As reported in the figure, the RMSE values drop (i.e., accuracy values rise) approximately with the growth of n; this is because more candidate services often mean a higher probability of finding an optimal service that fits the preferences of a target user. Another observation from Fig. 3 is the RMSE values rise (i.e., accuracy values drop) approximately with the increment of P; the reason is probably as below: a larger threshold P, i.e., more returned neighbors of a target user may decrease the similarity between the target user and his/her neighbors and thereby reduce the recommendation accuracy.
Profile 4: accuracy of Rec_{MPS} with respect to n and P
This profile tests the relationship between time cost of Rec_{MPS} method and parameters n and P. Parameter settings are listed as below: m = 142, n = {500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000}, threshold P = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}. Experiment results are reported in Fig. 4. As Fig. 4 indicates, the efficiency of Rec_{MPS} generally decreases with the growth of n and P, as more candidate services or more returned neighbors of a target user often bring additional computational time to find the optimal service for recommendations.
Further discussions
In this subsection, we discuss more details about the experiments and results.
(1) In subsection 5.A, only a QoS dimension (Boolean values) is recruited. However, we argue that our method can be easily extended to the more complex application scenarios with multiple dimensions [29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38] as well as their weights [39,40,41,42,43,44,45] by repeating the Simhashbased index building process multiple times.
(2) In the experiment test, only one type of decisionmaking data (i.e., Boolean service invocation records) is considered to judge whether two users are similar neighbors. In the future, we will extend our method to accommodate the diversity of data types in the big data environment, e.g., discrete values [46,47,48,49,50,51,52], continuous values [53,54,55,56,57], fuzzy values [58], and so on.
(3) In Rec_{MPS} method, the sensitive service invocation records (Boolean values) are converted into lesssensitive user indices based on Simhash technique, through which the privacypreserving recommendation goal is achieved. However, the privacypreservation effects of Rec_{MPS} method are not quantified in the experiments due to the inherent shortcoming of Simhash. Therefore, further attention should be paid to the quantitative measurement and analyses of privacypreservation capability of our proposal.
(4) In the experiments, we only test the recommendation accuracy (through RMSE) and efficiency separately. However, as the experiment results in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show, there is a tradeoff relationship between these two key recommendation criteria. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the tradeoff between them in the future. Moreover, there may exist a threeparty tradeoff relationship among the recommendation accuracy, time cost, and capability of privacypreservation, which still need further analyses in future experiments.
Conclusions and future work
Recommender systems have become a promising tool to help people to quickly extract valuable information from big data. Typically, through analyzing the Boolean service invocation records, a collaborative recommender system can find and recommend appropriate new services to a target user. However, existing methods focus more on recommendation accuracy or efficiency, while often fail to protect the sensitive information contained in Boolean service invocation records distributed across different cloud platforms. Inspired by this observation, we introduce multiprobe Simhash strategy in the information retrieval domain into the recommendation process and bring forth a privacyaware recommendation method based on historical service invocation records (Boolean values), i.e., Rec_{MPS}. At last, we design several experiments on the popular service quality dataset, i.e., WSDREAM. Experimental findings show the advantages of Rec_{MPS} compared with other competitive methods.
However, there are several shortcomings in Rec_{MPS} method. First, for simplicity, we only consider one dimension for recommendation decisionmakings, i.e., Boolean service invocation records; in future research, we will extend Rec_{MPS} method by including more dimensions and possible linear correlations [59,60,61] and nonlinear correlations [62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69]. Besides, the recommendation basis in Rec_{MPS} is unique, i.e., Boolean service invocation records. Therefore, we will improve Rec_{MPS} method by integrating the diverse recommendation data. At last, Rec_{MPS} cannot always make successful recommendations as Simhash is a probabilitybased technique; therefore, we will tackle this issue in future research work.
Abbreviations
 CF:

Collaborative filtering
 DP:

Differential privacy
 MPS:

Multiprobe Simhash
 QoS:

Quality of service
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Acknowledgements
Not applicable.
Funding
Part work of this paper is supported by the Research on Data Mining Technology for the Healthcare Big Data (No. JY2016KJ034Y) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61872219).
Availability of data and materials
The recruited experiment dataset WSDREAM is available at wsdream.github.io/.
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QW and GZ finished the algorithm and wrote the paper in English. WW finished the experiments. TS put forward the idea of this paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Correspondence to Tingting Shao.
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Wei, Q., Wang, W., Zhang, G. et al. Privacyaware crosscloud service recommendations based on Boolean historical invocation records. J Wireless Com Network 2019, 101 (2019) doi:10.1186/s1363801914322
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Keywords
 Service recommendation
 Historical service invocation records
 Simhash
 Multiprobe
 Privacypreservation