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Table 2 Standard deviation and difference between actual distance and mean value (ε) from Monte Carlo simulations with a single microphone at a distance of 1.553 m

From: High precision hybrid RF and ultrasonic chirp-based ranging for low-power IoT nodes

SNR (dB)   20 10 6 3 1 0
35 khz - 25 khz ε 0.044 0.061 0.063 0.061 0.049 0.007
10 kHz BW σ 0.024 0.043 0.058 0.092 0.277 0.573
45 khz - 25 khz ε 0.001 0.011 0.008 0.008 0.029 0.068
20 kHz BW σ 0.004 0.021 0.31 0.042 0.300 0.565
55 khz - 25 khz ε 0 0 0 0.001 0.020 0.080
30 kHz BW σ 0.001 0.014 0.020 0.042 0.316 0.652
65 khz - 25 khz ε 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.005 0.029 0.109
40 kHz BW σ 0.001 0.006 0.014 0.023 0.435 0.833
75 khz - 25 khz ε 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.053 0.138
50 kHz BW σ 0.001 0.004 0.008 0.099 0.550 0.887