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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Hybrid traffic security shaping scheme combining TAS and CQSF of time-sensitive networks in smart grid

This article was retracted on 13 May 2024

This article has been updated


The new intelligent factory introduces Time-Sensitive Network into industrial Ethernet to provide real time and deterministic guarantee communication for production system. Since the problem pertaining to data leakage or damage during transmission has increasingly become pronounced, security protection technology has been introduced, but this technology will bring about a delay in user response and a decline in the quality of service. Meanwhile, ensuring the deterministic mixed transmission of time-sensitive and large-bandwidth data traffic supported by the same switching device is a still challenging problem. Therefore, this study proposes a hybrid security scheduling scheme which combines Time-Aware Shaper and cycle specified queuing and forwarding (CSQF). Specifically, the mechanism first adopts various encryption methods for different traffic, and afterward, it reduces its resource occupation by adjusting the sampling period of the time-sensitive traffic. At the same time, it adopts CSQF to schedule the large-bandwidth data traffic, thereby improving the scheduling success rate. According to the experimental results, this scheme enhances network security and network scheduling success rate by up to 51%. The scheduling of mixed traffic in the Time-sensitive Network is realized securely and efficiently.

1 Introduction

With the advent of industry 4.0 era, the intelligent degree of industrial control system has been becoming more and more high, which puts forward higher requirements for the deterministic and security transmission of information. In order to ensure the flexibility of the network, the same switching device must support the mixed transmission of time-sensitive traffic and large-bandwidth traffic. Traditional Ethernet has great advantages in scalability [1], but it is not suitable for applications with high requirements for real time and security [2]. Therefore, the IEEE 802.1 time-sensitive network(TSN) task group proposed the TSN protocol [3] to achieve mixed coexistence of traffic [4]. TSN supports mixed transmission of time-sensitive flows and non-time-sensitive flows, periodic flows and non-periodic flows in the network, and can provide end-to-end certainty and low latency guarantee for data packets. Nowadays, the smart grid is seeking integration with TSN technology. The primary risks of the smart grid are complexity, high frequency and high extensity [5]. Nowadays, with the increased in user demands, the communication between systems and systems, or systems and people has been becoming more and more frequent. A large amount of information transmission may bring about network congestion or even collapse, and some of that information may be lost and stolen at the terminal. There are also time-sensitive traffic and large-bandwidth traffic that require secure scheduling in the smart grid. One is a large number of voice streams transmitted in the network. The dispatching center in the smart grid performs the management and monitoring by sending and receiving real-time control information. When such information is stolen or destroyed, it will cause serious damage to the operation of the entire network [6]. One is a large number of voice flows transmitted in the network. Data require to be transmitted from the source to the destination within a certain amount of delay, otherwise there will be a risk of data loss, which means the end-to-end delay is critical. However, taking security measures will affect the end-to-end delay of data to a certain extent; thus, security is a quite challenging issue when considering how to balance the delay caused by the security.

When more and more data are transmitted in the network, due to the low efficiency of scheduling technology, a large number of data flows will be congested or even lost, and the loss of information transmitted in the network will also seriously endanger the safety of users. In standard network, the end system is interconnected with a series of physical links and switches, and the communication from one sender to another or multiple receivers is carried out via network routing forwarding. Hence, the data stream may experience queue delay while waiting for the transmission. This leads to network congestion that causes a non-deterministic behavior and variance in flow arrival times. Massive traffic scheduling can be fulfilled through TSN protocol. TSN was originally derived from the application requirements of the audio and video fields. It is a protocol cluster that contains multiple sub protocols in order to achieve different functions. For example. Time-aware shaper (TAS) is defined in IEEE 802.1Qbv [7], which implements traffic shaping in the network by controlling the switch gating list. IEEE 802.1Qch [8] defines a cyclic queuing and forwarding (CQF), which implements traffic shaping through cyclic switching ping pong queues and simplifies the TAS mechanism; IEEE 802.1Qav [9] proposed a credit-based shaper (CBS). Huawei proposed a cycle specified queuing and forwarding mechanism (CSQF) [10] to achieve long-distance, end-to-end deterministic transmission by combining segmented routing technology. Two types of encryption methods exist including symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the most common symmetric encryption algorithm. It uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data, and AES can use keys of different lengths for encryption and decryption. Public Key System (RAS) is a different encryption algorithm between the key encrypted by the sender and the key decrypted by the receiver. The smart grid scheduling system is not flexible enough to encounter the requirements of multi-level scheduling. The time-critical traffic in TSN has strict timing constraints, and its transmission is usually determined in advance by the scheduling table. The time overhead of the security mechanism will have an impact on the original scheduling plan of these traffic, so the security mechanism must be considered in combination with other constraints before the scheduling table is generated.

Few investigations have been conducted by the researchers in order to solve the problem pertaining to traffic security scheduling. Reference [11] focused on the problem related to privilege identification and data confidentiality and conflict and delay; also, it was proposed a corresponding solution. A terminal encryption technology based on an asymmetric encryption algorithm was proposed; nevertheless, a big delay occurs in the asymmetric encryption algorithm. Reference [12] proposed a certificateless proxy blind signcryption scheme based on the combination of a signature algorithm and an encryption algorithm in order to ensure the privacy and security of users in the transmission process. At the same time, it uses batch verification and edge computing technology to shorten the response delay, yet the delay solved is the service delay caused by the surge of users. In Reference [13], in order to encounter the security requirements and minimize the transmission delay, an encryption algorithm such as AES provides sufficient security level to protect the data confidentiality in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). A new sleep scheduling method was proposed to reduce the delay of alert broadcast from any sensor node in WSN. However, the study considered only two paths to transmit the data. Reference [14, 15] introduced the traffic scheduling method based on deep learning; however, it was needed a large amount of secure data and the cost of training is quite high. Reference [16] proposed a hybrid shaping scheme combining TAS and CBS, which considers different categories of Audio–Video-Bridging (AVB) flows and derives the upper bounds of stream delay and memory usage through network calculus. However, the focus of this study is to analyze and theoretically derive the performance of network mixed flow transmission, and no specific mixed flow scheduling strategy is provided. This paper proposes a hybrid traffic security scheduling mechanism that combines TAS and CSQF to achieve efficient and secure scheduling of hybrid traffic in TSN.

The main contributions of the paper are as follows:

  1. 1

    Proposed a hybrid traffic security scheduling mechanism (SSM) to satisfy the hybrid transmission requirements of time-sensitive traffic and large-bandwidth data traffic, and all steps of the scheduling scheme are given.

  2. 2

    The security level and end-to-end delay interfere with each other. End-to-end delay includes transmission and encryption delay. Encryption algorithm can improve the security of flows, but at the same time it will cause the increase in delay. If the waiting time of the flow is too long, it will lead to congestion or even packet loss, and the security will decrease. Therefore, to balance end-to-end delay and security, it is changed the encryption level to reduce the encryption time, and further reduce the end-to-end delay.

  3. 3

    Adjusted the sampling period of the high time-sensitive (HTS) flows to reduce its transmission bandwidth occupancy rate, and more transmission resources are reserved for the AVB flows to improve the network schedulability. When the AVB flows are not schedulable in the network, the CSQF mechanism is used to schedule AVB flows and further improving the network schedulability.

2 System Model 

2.1 Encryption

In wireless networks, data encryption can prevent the most important information from leakage. In this paper, it is adopted the AES as an encryption algorithm. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext, and decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form called plaintext. This plaintext is encrypted with the help of AES, and then, the possessed ciphertext will again encrypt likewise, and there will be various rounds in the AES algorithm including 10, 12, and 14 rounds for 128, 192, and 256 bit keys. As there are various rounds in this algorithm, the plaintext is encrypted many times, and this helps the data to have security [17]. However, as the higher the security of the encryption algorithm increase, the required time also increases. The encryption security level \(l_k\) can be denoted according to [18]:

$$\begin{aligned} l_k=2^{\frac{k_{{\text {len}}}}{k_{\min }}} -1 \end{aligned}$$

where \(k_{\text {min}}\) is the shortest key length, \(k_{\text {len}}\) is the length of key used.

When using AES to encrypt and decrypt the same message, the encryption and decryption time of AES exhibits linear change along with the key length according to. By this means, the encryption delay and decryption delay \(t_k\) can be simplified as:

$$\begin{aligned} t_k=a*k_{{\text {len}}}+b \end{aligned}$$

where a is proportional coefficient which stands the rate of the delay, and b is a constant.

There are different types of traffic in the network, and their requirements for information security and delay assurance are different. According to different traffic, this paper uses AES algorithm with different key length to encrypt them.

2.2 Transmission mechanism

Time-Aware Shaper: IEEE 802.1Qbv defines the Time-Aware Shaper, which provides periodic traffic scheduling based on traffic level. Each queue has different priorities, and the packets entering the switch are forwarded to the corresponding queue according to the priority information of the frame header. The TAS mechanism is shown in Fig. 1, where there is a time-aware gate on the exit side of each queue. When the gating code is O, the gate can be opened to send data, otherwise when the gating code is C, the gate is closed and the data cannot be transmitted. When multiple gates are opened at the same time, the priority selector transmits data packets from high to low according to the queue priority, and the queue gate is periodically controlled by the Gate Control List (GCL).

Fig. 1
figure 1


Cycle Specified Queuing and Forwarding: The core idea of CSQF is consistent with CQF, which is still based on storage and forwarding [19]. CSQF is based on the minimum scheduling time slot of the network and periodically opens the controlled queue gating. In each time slot, there is one and only one queue gating code is open, which can transmit data to the downstream node, and the remaining queues can only receive and cache the upstream node data packets. CSQF can control multiple queues in front of the output port. The control queues are divided into three types: Sending Queue (SQ), Receiving Queue (RQ), Tolerating Queue (TQ). In a time slot, only one queue is listed as SQ, which sends data packets in the buffer zone to the output port. Similarly, there is only one RQ, which receives and caches data packets sent by upstream nodes; the remaining queues are TQs. They can receive data packets that exceed the size of the RQ buffer and burst data streams so as to avoid packet loss caused by RQ buffer overflow. At the same time, TQ can also receive data packets that arrive in this time slot but are not specified to be sent in the next time slot. The same queue has different queue types in different time slots.

Assuming that the number of CSQF control queues is x and the minimum scheduling time slot of the network is \(T_u\), each queue changes its queue type alternately with x*\(T_u\) as the cycle. As shown in Fig. 2, in the first time slot, queue 1 is SQ for data forwarding, queue 2 is RQ for receiving upstream data packets, and queue 3 is TQ for receiving burst data stream or offset data stream. In the second time slot, each queue type is alternated, and the queue state cycle is 3*\(T_u\).

Fig. 2
figure 2


2.3 System architecture

The structure of the hybrid traffic security scheduling mechanism is shown in Fig. 3. The system has N input ports, and there are eight output queues before each output port. In this paper, the priority of the HTS flows scheduled by the TAS mechanism is set to the highest priority 7, leaving a queue as an extensible queue. The AVB flows scheduled by CSQF mechanism is transmitted through five queues, and the priority 5 is assigned to the five queues. The priority of BE flows is 0. After the input stream passes through the switching structure, the stream filter forwards the stream to the corresponding queue for encryption according to the Priority Code Point (PCP) field. The queue exit is controlled by a GCL. When multiple gates are opened at the same time, the priority selector forwards the data packet to the output port according to the queue priority from high to low.

Fig. 3
figure 3

Scheduling structure

2.4 Problem statements

In this paper, we regard encryption as a security task. When the data stream arrives, the encryption task is first performed. We use {\(e_k^{\tau }\),\(t_k^{\tau }\),\(d_k^{\tau }\)},k:1,2,3 to mode encryption task, \(e_k^{\tau }\) denotes security level, \(t_k^{\tau }\) denotes the time of encryption task, \(d_k^{\tau }\) is used to represent the cut-off period of encryption task.

We model the data into three categories: HTS flows, AVB flows and best-effort (BE) flows. The service categories in the network are shown in Table 1. HTS flows refer to the network control flows, which mainly transmit system key information such as control information and synchronization information. These flows are small in number and short in packet length, but have high requirements for security and delay. Therefore, the HTS queue uses the TAS and has the highest priority 7. Suppose there are m HTS flows in the network. We use { \(T_i^H\), \(L_i^H\), \(D_i^H\), \(P^H\), \(E^H\)}, i:1, 2,…m to mode HTS flows, \(T_i^H\) denotes the sampling period, \(L_i^H\) denotes the length of the data packet, \(D_i^H\) is used to represent the cut-off period, \(P^H\) denotes the priority, HTS flows priorities are 7, \(E^H\) denotes \(l_k\). When \(E^H\) is 0, the flow does not need to be encrypted; when the value of \(E^H\) is 1, 2, 3, the flow adopts the corresponding security level encryption algorithm. Since the HTS flows in this paper use the 256-bit AES encryption algorithm, the \(l_k\) of the HTS flows is 3.

Table 1 Service categories

The number of AVB flows transmitted in the network is large and the packet length is long, but compared with the HTS flows, the sampling period is large and the delay requirement is low. Suppose there are k AVB flows in the network. We use \(\{ T_j^A,L_j^A,D_j^A,P_j^A,E^A\}\), j:1, 2,…k to mode AVB flows, \(T_j^A\) denotes the sampling period, \(L_j^A\) denotes the length of the data packet,\(D_j^A\) is used to represent the cut-off period, \(P_j^A\) denotes the priority. AVB flows priorities are 5, \(E^A\) denotes \(l_k\). Since the AVB flows in this paper use the 128-bit AES encryption algorithm, the \(l_k\) of AVB flows is 1.

This paper does not consider the specific parameters of the BE flows, and only defines their priority as the lowest priority 0. The hybrid traffic security scheduling mechanism proposed in this paper mainly needs to solve three problems:

  1. 1

    In addition to meeting the deadline requirements of all flows, the scheduling algorithm also needs to meet the security encryption requirements of all flows and minimize the total end-to-end delay of the application. However, end-to-end delay and security task are not orthogonal. Therefore, it is necessary to select a reasonable encryption method.

  2. 2

    Increase the Actual Sampling Period of HTS Flows: HTS flows carry the key information in the network and should be transmitted without waiting as much as possible. However, because the HTS flows queue has the highest priority, in a transmission cycle, when multiple gates are opened at the same time. Only if the HTS queue is empty, other queues have transmission opportunities. If the HTS flows are always sampled according to the original sampling period, as the number of HTS flows increases, most of the transmission bandwidth will be occupied by them, and the AVB flows will be difficult to transmit, but the AVB flows are the main traffic in the network. As shown in Fig. 4, increasing the actual sampling period of the HTS flow can reduce its bandwidth occupancy, thereby reserving more transmission resources for the AVB flows.

  3. 3

    AVB Flows Planning: when the total traffic received by a node from multiple sources exceeds the capacity of the output link of the node, congestion will occur, which will lead to long queue delay or buffer overflow, resulting in data loss or system failure. The AVB flow has low delay requirements and only needs to be transmitted before the cut-off period. Therefore, this paper adjusts AVB flows at the source node to avoid scheduling failure caused by cache overflow.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Adjust HTS stream sampling period

2.5 Constraints

In this paper, for the data flows in the network, the solved flow scheduling scheme needs to meet the following constraints:

2.5.1 Minimum scheduling time slot constraint

Since \(T_u\) is the minimum scheduling time slot of the system, the period of all flows in the network must be an integer multiple of \(T_u\). \(L=(l_1,l_2,\ldots ,l_p)\) is the factor set of \(T_g^A\).

$$\begin{aligned}{} & {} T_g^A={\text {GCD}}(T_1^A,T_2^A,\ldots ,T_k^A) \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned}{} & {} T_u\le {T_g^A},T_u\in {L} \end{aligned}$$

We assume that the HTS flows sampled in a time slot T need to be transmitted completely in that time slot; then, we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} T_u\ge \sum _{i=1}^{n}\frac{L_i^H}{B} \end{aligned}$$

where B is the transmission rate of the link.

Since the sampling period of HTS flow is bounded, the value of \(T_u\) needs to be constrained.

$$\begin{aligned}{} & {} T_u\ge \max {(T_{i,\min }^H)} \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned}{} & {} T_u\le \min {(T_{i,\max }^H)} \end{aligned}$$

For the AVB flows, the packets injected in the previous time slot need to be forwarded in the next time slot; then, we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} T_u\ge \frac{{\text {BufSize}}}{U}+\delta _{\max } \end{aligned}$$

where BufSize is the maximum cache value of a queue. U is the export forwarding rate. \(\delta _{\max }\) is maximum delay sum.

2.5.2 GCL constraints

If there are x AVB queues using CSQF mechanism, then we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} T_{{\text {CSQF}}}=xT_u \end{aligned}$$

For HTS queues, we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} T_{{\text {TAS}}}={\text {LCM}}(T_1^H,T_2^H,\ldots ,T_m^H) \end{aligned}$$

For GCL, we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} T_{{\text {GATE}}}={\text {LCM}}(T_{{\text {CSQF}}},T_{{\text {TAS}}}) \end{aligned}$$

2.5.3 HTS flows constraints

Bus Occupancy Constraint [20]: In order to ensure that flows in the network are schedulable, it is first necessary to ensure that the occupancy rate of HTS flows on the bus is not greater than 1 in any unit time slot, and then, we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} \frac{\sum _{i=1}^{n}\frac{L_i^H}{B}}{T_u}\le 1 \end{aligned}$$

Transmission delay constraint: The total delay of \(f_i^H\) packets from generation to transmission completion needs to be less than the flow cut-off period; then, we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} f_i^H\cdot {{\text {delay}}}\le {D_i^H} \end{aligned}$$

2.5.4 AVB sending queue

Under the CSQF mechanism, the forwarding delay of the AVB stream needs to be equal to or less than \(xT_u\).

$$\begin{aligned} f_j^A\cdot {{\text {forward}}}\le {xT_u} \end{aligned}$$

Queue offset constraint: Each AVB flow can choose to enter one of (x-2) queues except SQ and RQ.

$$\begin{aligned} f_j^A\cdot {{\text {queue}}\_{\text {delay}}}\le {(x-2)T_u} \end{aligned}$$

Transmission delay constraint: Similar to HTS flows, the total delay from generation to transmission of a packet of \(f_j^A\) must be less than the cut-off period; then, we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} f_j^A\cdot {{\text {delay}}}\le {D_j^A} \end{aligned}$$

Under the premise of satisfying all the above constraints, the scheduling success rate SSR is used as the performance measurement index, which is the ratio of the number of network schedulable simulation experiments \(n_s\) to the total number of experiments \(n_{{\text {all}}}\), and SSR can be represented by

$$\begin{aligned} {\text {SSR}}=\frac{n_s}{n_{{\text {all}}}} \end{aligned}$$

2.6 Delay formulation

For HTS flows, because all HTS flows have the same highest priority 7, in any time slot, the remaining queues can be sent only if the HTS queue is empty. In addition, under the constraints of this paper, the packets to be sent in the HTS queue and the AVB queue in any \(T_u\) will be sent within this time slot, so there is no need to consider the interference caused by the packets sent in the previous time slot to the next time slot. Then for any HTS flow \(f_i^H\), the delay comes from: (1) The transmission time of the HTS flows packet entering the queue earlier than \(f_i^H\); (2) the transmission time of \(f_i^H\) ’s own data packet; (3) encryption delay \(T_a\). The delay is shown in Fig. 5, and then, delay \(f_i^H\cdot {delay}\) can be represented by

$$\begin{aligned} f_i^H\cdot {{\text {delay}}}=\sum _{\forall {k\le {i}},f_i^H\cdot {T_q}=1}^{i}\frac{L_k^H}{B}+T_a \end{aligned}$$

where \(f_i^H\cdot {T_q}=1\) represents that the flow \(f_i^H\) is sampled in the qth unit time slot.

Fig. 5
figure 5

HTS flow delay

For AVB flow \(f_j^A\), its delay comes from: (1) The transmission delay of higher priority flows; (2) the priority is the same as \(f_j^A\), but the transmission delay of other AVB flows entering the queue first; (3) forwarding delay; (4) offset delay; (5) the transmission delay of its own \(f_j^A\) packet; (6) encryption delay \(T_a\). hp(i) denote all flows collection with priority higher than \(f_j^A\), and sp(i) denote all flows collection with priority equal to \(f_j^A\). The delay is shown in Fig. 6, and then, the delay \(f_j^A\cdot {{\text {delay}}}\) can be represented by

$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} f_j^A\cdot {{\text {delay}}}=\sum _{\forall {k\in {hp(i)}},f_k^A\cdot {T_q}=1}^{n}\frac{L_k^H}{B}+\sum _{\forall {w\in {sp(i)}},f_w^A\cdot {T_{q-1}}=1}^{m}\frac{L_w^A}{B}\\ +f_j^A\cdot {{\text {forward}}}+f_j^A\cdot {{\text {queue}}\_{\text {delay}}}+T_a \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$

where \(f_j^A\cdot {T_{q-1}=1}\) represents that \(f_j^A\) is injected into the switch at time slot q-1 and sent at time slot q.

Fig. 6
figure 6

AVB flow delay

3 Mechanism Model            

The SSM Mechanism proposed in this paper can be divided into three parts: (1) In order to balance security and end-to-end delay, HTS queue uses 256-bit AES encryption algorithm, a large number of AVB queues use 128-bit AES encryption algorithm, BE queue does not encrypt; (2) adjust the sampling period of HTS flows, reserve more transmission resources for AVB flows; (3) adopt CSQF mechanism to schedule AVB flows.

3.1 Adjust HTS flows sampling period

HTS flow sampling period \(\frac{1}{T_i^H}\) has the following relationship with its bandwidth \(B_i^H\) [21]:

$$\begin{aligned} B_i^H=\frac{1}{T_i^H} \end{aligned}$$

Therefore, by adjusting the sampling period of HTS flows, the overall bus occupancy rate can be reduced. In addition, for the HTS flows \(f_i^H\), the upper bound of the actual sampling period is \(k_i\times {T_u}\). The smaller the \(T_u\), the greater the possibility that \(k_i\times {T_u}\) approaches the upper bound of the ideal sampling period \(T_{i,\max }^H\). Therefore, this section proposes a scheme to determine the minimum slot \(T_u\) and adjust the HTS flows sampling period in the SSM scheduling mechanism. The specific steps are as follows:

Step 1 Ascend the elements in the factor set L of \(T_g^A\), and let \(x = 1,T_u=L(x)\).

Step 2 Check whether the value of \(T_u\) satisfies the minimum time slot constraints of Eqs. (3)–(8). Enter the step 3 when the conditions are satisfied. Otherwise let \(x=x+1, T_u=L(x)\) and repeat step 2.

Step 3 Calculate \(k_i=\lfloor \frac{T_{i,\max }^H}{T_u}\rfloor\) for HTS flows, and let \(T_i^H=k_i\times {T_u}\).

Step 4 Check whether the value of each parameter satisfies the GCL constraints of Eqs. (9)–(11). Stop the process when the conditions are satisfied. Otherwise, let \(x=x+1, T_u=L(x)\) and return step 2.

3.2 AVB flows planning

The CSQF mechanism can avoid cache overflow by queue offset. During scheduling, according to the periodic mapping relationship between each pair of adjacent devices, the data packets sent in a certain time slot of the upstream node are determined. When the downstream node is reached, it will be mapped to which receiving time slot of the node. For the CSQF mechanism, the receiving time slot of the data packet and the outlet queue of the receiving data packet are mapped one by one. Therefore, the receiving time slot can be determined to determine the output queue that the data packet should enter in the hop. The maximum delay of the AVB flows can be calculated by Eq. (19). Therefore, how to determine the periodic mapping relationship between adjacent nodes is the focus of this section.

When there is a time difference between adjacent nodes, because the receiving queue corresponding to each time slot is different, it is necessary to determine the incoming cache queue according to the actual time slot reaching the next hop node. Therefore, it is necessary to study the periodic cycle alignment relationship of the queue controlled by the CSQF mechanism between adjacent nodes, as shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7
figure 7

CQSF periodic cycle alignment

It is assumed that there are two adjacent nodes A and B in different time domains in the network. According to the GCL constraint, the \(T_{{\text {CSQF}}}\) of the queue controlled by the CSQF mechanism is \(xT_u\), where x is the number of gated queues controlled by the CSQF mechanism. In this paper, the x value is 5, and the starting point of cycle 1 time slot of node A is the reference point of cycle alignment. Suppose that there is a time difference of \(\Delta _{A,B}\) between nodes A and B, \(\phi (t)=z\) denotes that the data packet sent at time t of node A will be fully received in the zth time slot of node B, as shown in Fig. 7, and \(\phi (t)=4\).

There is a delay from node A to node B, which is composed of the transmission delay and the propagation delay. \(t_{{\text {delay}}}\) can be written as

$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} t_{{\text {delay}}}&=t_{{\text {delay}},{\text {trans}}}+t_{{\text {delay}},{\text {prop}}} \\ t_{{\text {delay}},{\text {trans}}}&=\frac{L_j^A}{U},t_{{\text {delay}},{\text {prop}}}=\frac{f_j^A\cdot {{\text {link}}\_{\text {length}}_{A,B}}}{r} \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$

The time when the data packets start to be sent at node A is \(t_{A,{\text {send}}}\), and the time when node B receives all the data packets is \(t_{B,{\text {receive}}}\). \(t_{B,{\text {receive}}}\) can be modeled as

$$\begin{aligned} t_{B,{\text {receive}}}=t_{A,{\text {send}}}+t_{{\text {delay}}}-\Delta _{A,B} \end{aligned}$$

Then, it can be calculated that \(t_{B,{\text {receive}}}\) is located in the zth time slot of node B. z is given by

$$z=\left\lceil \frac{t_{B,{\text {receive}}}}{T_u} \right \rceil {\text {mod}}\left( \frac{T_{{\text {CSQF}}}}{T_u}\right)$$

Then, we can get the periodic mapping alignment formula \(\phi (s)\) between two adjacent nodes with periodic alignment deviation.

$$\phi (t_{A,{\text {send}}})=\left \lceil \frac{t_{A,{\text {send}}}+\frac{L_j^A}{U}+\frac{f_j^A\cdot {link\_length_{A,B}}}{r}-\Delta _{A,B}}{T_u}\right\rceil \cdot {\text {mod}}\left( \frac{T_{{\text {CSQF}}}}{T_u}\right)$$

Assuming that the actual queue offset is \(dT_u\), the data packets start to be forwarded to the next hop sending time \(t_{B,{\text {send}}}\) is given by

$$\begin{aligned} \begin{aligned} t_{B,{\text {send}}}\in [(\phi (t_{A,{\text {send}}})+dT_u){\text {mod}}\left( \frac{T_{{\text {CSQF}}}}{T_u}\right) , (\phi (t_{A,{\text {send}}})+(d+1)T_u){\text {mod}}\left( \frac{T_{{\text {CSQF}}}}{T_u}\right) ] \end{aligned} \end{aligned}$$

According to Eq. (24) and Eq. (25), when scheduling AVB flows, the sending time and receiving time of data packets in adjacent hops can be derived iteratively, and then whether the current scheduling is successful can be judged.

4 Results

In order to verify the performance of the core algorithm of the proposed SSM mechanism, a series of simulation comparison experiments are carried out based on the MATLAB (R2021a) simulation platform.

4.1 Experimental data

In the experiment, the maximum frame length MTU of the network is set to 1500 B, the maximum cache value of the single queue of the switch is 7 MTU, and the link rate B is 1000 Mbps. As shown in Table 1, HTS flows represent the network control flows in the smart grid, and AVB flows represent the audio flows in the smart grid. According to the delay requirements in the smart grid, the sampling period and packet length of each HTS flow are randomly selected from the set { 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 } ms, { 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0} kB, respectively. The cut-off period of all HTS flows is a random integer value in the range of \([T_i^H,1.5T_i^H ]\), and the actual sampling period of HTS flow is its cut-off period. AVB flows sampling period and packet length are randomly selected from the set {4,6,8,10,12,14} ms,{1.5,2.0,2.5,3.5,1.0,4.5,5.0} kB, the cut-off time of each AVB flows is a random integer value in the range of {80,100} ms.

4.2 Analysis

4.2.1 Encryption delay

Different symmetric encryption algorithms are used to encrypt the data with a plaintext length of 128B and a packet length of 16 bytes, and the encryption and decryption efficiency of each algorithm is obtained. The results are shown in Fig. 8. As can be seen from the figure, the AES encryption efficiency is the highest, and the encryption delay is 5.89us. The second is the CAST and RC4, the encryption delay is 8–9 us, but the security is not as high as the AES algorithm. Followed by SM4, IDEA and RC2, encryption delay of 10–20 us. Finally, the SM1 algorithm, encryption delay reached nearly 200 us. Therefore, in view of the high real-time requirements of smart grid, the mechanism proposed in this paper adopts AES encryption algorithm, which has the lowest time delay and the highest security.

Fig. 8
figure 8

Encryption algorithm encryption delay comparison

This paper compares the effect of different AES encryption methods on delay. These results can be seen in Fig. 9. We want to reduce the encryption delay as much as possible under the condition of high encryption security level. The experimental results show that if HTS flows and AVB flows both use 256-bit AES for encryption, the delay will be large; however, if the HTS flows use 256-bit AES for encryption, and the AVB flows uses 128-bit AES for encryption, the delay is not much different from that caused by the HTS flows and the AVB flows using 128 bit AES for encryption at the same time, and the encryption security level of the HTS flows is also guaranteed.

Fig. 9
figure 9

Encryption delay of different encryption methods

4.2.2 Bandwidth utilization rate

In order to verify the influence of adjusting the sampling period of HTS flows on network performance, the experiment does not consider the existence of other types of flows in the network. When there are 2 to 12 HTS flows in the simulation network, the experimental results of the network bandwidth occupancy rate of HTS flows before and after adjusting the sampling period are shown in Fig. 10. The experimental results show that when the sampling period is not adjusted, with the increase in the number of HTS flows, the occupancy rate of the HTS flows to the transmission bandwidth increases rapidly. When the number of flows reaches 12, the transmitted HTS flows occupy nearly 90% of the network bandwidth, which will cause the AVB flows to be almost impossible to transmit. When the sampling period is adjusted by the scheme proposed in this paper, the bandwidth occupation of AVB flows can be greatly reduced, and more transmission resources can be reserved for other flows, which is conducive to improving network schedulability.

Fig. 10
figure 10

HTS flows' bandwidth utilization rate

4.2.3 Scheduling success ratio

We adopt CSQF mechanism to schedule AVB flows. There are 10 HTS flows in the simulation network. When there are 200–240 AVB flows, the scheduling success rate after using the SSM mechanism is shown in Fig. 11. The experimental results show that with the increase in the number of AVB flows, the scheduling success rate will decrease linearly, but the SSM mechanism has a significant impact on improving the network scheduling success rate. The maximum difference between the two is 25%, which can increase the network scheduling rate by 51% at most. Therefore, it can be proved that the hybrid traffic security scheduling mechanism proposed in this paper is a reasonable and effective scheduling scheme.

Fig. 11
figure 11

scheduling success ratio

5 Conclusion

In this paper, we proposed a hybrid traffic security scheduling mechanism, which combines encryption algorithm and TSN technology to design different security scheduling strategies according to the flow characteristics of time-sensitive traffic and large-bandwidth data traffic. The experimental results show that the SSM mechanism improves the data security by encryption and improves the network schedulability by combining TAS and CSQF mechanisms. It achieves the balance between delay and security successfully and realizes the secure scheduling of voice switching network.

Availability of data and materials

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.

Change history



Time-sensitive Network


Time-aware shaper


Cycle specified queuing and forwarding


Advanced Encryption Standard


Cyclic queuing and forwarding


Credit-based shaper


Wireless Sensor Network


High time-sensitive




Gate Control List


Sending Queue


Receiving Queue


Tolerating Queue


Priority Code Point




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The authors would like to thank all anonymous reviewers for their invaluable comments.


The work was supported by the Science and Technology project of State Grid Corporation of China (Research on Dispatching Fusion Communication Oriented to Power Communication Network and Its Cooperative Control with Power Network Operation, 520627220008). National Natural Science Foundation of China with Grant 62001051.

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LS and QZ conceived the original idea. RT completed the theoretical analysis. YZ and HZ carried out the experiments and data analysis. QZ and RB designed, coordinated and supervised this research. XH improved the system model. All authors discussed the results and participated in drafting and revising the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Hongting Zhai.

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Zhai, H., Zhang, Q., Tang, R. et al. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Hybrid traffic security shaping scheme combining TAS and CQSF of time-sensitive networks in smart grid. J Wireless Com Network 2023, 106 (2023).

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