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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Switching mode allocation in planning paths for vehicular network communication

This article was retracted on 13 May 2024

This article has been updated


Because of the increased mobility of vehicle users, it might be difficult to keep communication services in vehicle networks effective and dependable. Huge hurdles have been presented to vehicular networks as a result of the meteoric rise in the amount of data, which comes with the needs of high dependability and low latency. The deployment of access point servers at geographic locations that are closer to the vehicles in order to provide real-time service to applications that are based on the vehicles is one possible option. However, there is a limited amount of cache store space, and there is also a lack of a tractable access mode allocation method. As a result of these factors, it is very difficult to strike a compromise between the network transmission performance and fronthaul savings. Because the signal-to-interference-ratio (SIR) can be enhanced with switching mode in vehicular infrastructure, it may be possible to achieve higher levels of dependability. To serve all of the vehicles, the conventional allocation in vehicular network may not be sufficient on its own for two reasons: (1) the number of vehicles exceeds the number of paths, and (2) a vehicle may be located outside of the coverage path. Therefore, the implementation of switching mode allocation in vehicular communication is very necessary in order to increase the number of vehicles that can be supplied. In this paper, allocation using V2I, V2V, and V2X modes have been analyzed to provide dependable coverage for vehicles. These methods are used for communicating with other vehicles. In this paper, the numerical analysis has been performed such that SIR is optimized. In switching mode allocation, it has been shown that establishing a variable SIR threshold is helpful in achieving a path coverage that can be relied upon. It has been shown beyond a reasonable doubt that the coverage probability is likewise directly dependent on SIR thresholds. The theoretical analysis is verified, and it is confirmed that the suggested method is capable of achieving significant performance improvement in terms of coverage probability and data rate.

1 Introduction

Millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) is a technology that has the potential to enable considerable and reliable communication in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) [1]. It is also a way that shows promise. Mm-Wave MIMO is already playing a key role in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), which provides new applications and services to people who use vehicles through the medium of communication between vehicles and infrastructure [2]. ITS gives these new applications and services to people who use vehicles because it allows for communication between vehicles and infrastructure. When doing research on vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication [3] the vast majority of writers have concentrated their efforts primarily on increasing the system's capacity and sum-rate [4,5,6]. [3] This is due to the fact that the efficacy of the system can be immediately measured by using these two measures. Nevertheless, establishing dependable communication in V2X is very important, particularly for applications as essential as the sending of safety messages. The authors of [4] made the assumption that every vehicle participating in a mm-Wave analogue beamforming system has flawless channel state information (CSI) in order to satisfy quality of service (QoS) criteria. This action was taken in order to fulfill the prerequisite conditions. When applied to moving vehicles, however, this assumption is shown to be too optimistic, which leads to channels that are either quasi-static or dynamic and have defective CSI. This is the effect of channels having imperfect CSI. In addition to that, the interference that develops between the several beams was not taken into consideration. In an ideal situation, the authors of the research [5] devised a beam-frequency algorithm with the purpose of enhancing throughput by reserving a certain location for the vehicles. This was done in order to increase throughput at the intersection. This is a theory that one may consider to be utopian in nature. In addition to this, both [4, 5] operate on the premise that the obtained SIR ought to be greater than a certain threshold. It is essential that you keep this in mind since it is an important aspect. Nevertheless, attaining these threshold SIR values based on the needs of vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications are in no way simple or self-evident in any manner. These criteria are often the provision of information within a certain period of time and with a predetermined degree of dependability. It is not immediately clear how these threshold SIR levels might possibly be acquired under these circumstances. It has been shown that packets consisting of 1600 bytes may be received within 5 ms and have a dependability of 99.999% in order to give traffic safety applications [6]. In addition, it has been proven that these packets can have a dependability of 99.999%. This has been shown to be the case in a particular instance.

In this piece of research, we propose the notion of a technique for switching mode allocation that makes use of V2I, vehicle to vehicle (V2V), and V2X modes of communication in conjunction with one another. This approach would allow for a greater degree of flexibility in the way that switching modes are implemented. We were able to meet the vehicles' requirements for quality of service and adaptively improve the coverage probability by taking into consideration the fluctuating SIR values and positioning uncertainties associated with the automobiles. In order to do this, we disassembled the problem of joint resource allocation into its component pieces and recast it as a SIR optimisation problem for each of these elements. This optimisation is being done with the intention of ensuring dependability across-the-board for each and every one of the automobiles that are located inside the service zone.

There has been a discernible increase in the amount of attention that has been spent on communication between vehicles [7, 8]. This may be directly attributed to the quick development that has been made in intelligent transportation systems. Users are able to interact with one another in automobile networks by using connections known as vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) connections or linkages known as vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) links. Both of these types of connections and linkages are referred to as "V2V" and "V2I," respectively. The administration of networks connecting vehicles to one another and to infrastructure, known as vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2V/V2I), as well as the distribution of wireless resources, is one of the most significant difficulties.

The topology of vehicle networks is prone to go through rapid modifications as a consequence of the high mobility of the vehicles that are participating in the network. When working in an environment that is so dynamic, it is very challenging to gather accurate and up-to-date channel state information (CSI). This presents a very major obstacle. As a consequence of this, the CSI feedback mechanism that is used in the administration of V2V/V2I connections and wireless resources has to have an accurate framework. The kind of CSI comments that have been obtained may be used to place existing work into one of three categories: periodic CSI, no CSI, or full CSI. This decision is based on the type of feedback received. The overwhelming majority of the research that is presently accessible makes the assumption that the BS engages in periodic CSI. For example, in [8,9,10], the BS is only provided with information on large-scale fading that fluctuates slowly, at a slow pace, and on a periodic basis. Even if the feedback overhead can be reduced, using inaccurate CSI data that was acquired from quickly changing networks have a negative impact on the performance of vehicle networks. This is true even if the feedback overhead can be reduced. In spite of the fact that the feedback overhead may be reduced to a minimum, this remains the case. In addition, by making use of the knowledge about the geographic location, we have offered resource management solutions that do not include the input of CSI. For instance, the user access strategy that is recommended for mobile device-to-device (D2D) underlay networks does not need channel feedback, as stated in [11]. In any event, these kinds of systems often have a low utilization rate of the whole spectrum and are unable to adapt very well to time-variable channel circumstances [12, 13]. In addition, these kinds of systems frequently have a high rate of error.

The vast majority of studies that have been conducted in this area establish a significant difference between V2I users and V2V users, and they also presuppose that the total number of users who fall into each group is already known [14,15,16,17,18]. For example, in [8, 9], V2V users and V2I users make up two distinct groups, and the objective is to concurrently improve the performance of both kinds of users. V2V users, on the other hand, are unable to access the resources of cellular networks under these schemes, even if just a minute fraction of those resources are being used at any one time. Even when just a tiny fraction of the available cellular resources are being utilized, this is still the case.

Through the implementation of adaptive V2I/V2V/V2X mode switching and the intelligent management of wireless resources, our goal is to improve the spectrum's utilization efficiency. We provide a system that is based on data collected from vehicular paths and is able to concurrently recognize V2I, V2V, and V2X modes while also distributing wireless resources to vehicle users.

Because it makes it possible for wireless connections to be made between vehicles and remote servers [19, 20], the vehicular network, which is also known by its acronym VNET, is considered to be one of the most essential technologies in the intelligent transportation system (ITS). This serves to improve both the safety of the roads as well as the efficiency of the flow of traffic, as well as the entertainment experience that both drivers and passengers enjoy when they are in a moving vehicle.

Vehicular networks (VNETs) have the ability to provide ubiquitous coverage, reduce investment costs [21, 22]. This is in comparison with the many other potential solutions that are currently available. For this reason, cellular-based VNETs have gained a lot of attention from both the commercial world and the academic world in recent years. In cellular-based vehicular networks (VNETs), performance analysis, resource allocation, and mode selection have all been the subject of research that has been published in earlier literatures. In order to evaluate how well tiny cell-based VNETs work, the handoff rate and the vehicular overhead ratio have both been described in [23]. In this particular piece of research, the distribution of tiny cells is modeled after independent Poisson line processes (PLP), and stochastic geometry analysis techniques are used in order to evaluate the functionality of the networks involved.

Choi and Baccelli [24] devised a model that describes the locations of vehicular network nodes as a Cox point process (CPP). This model may be found here. This model has the ability to show the interconnected structure of roadways and autos in a manner that is both realistic and correct. This modeling approach is one-of-a-kind in contrast to the PPP, which is a technology that is often used in cellular networks. Following this, Choi and Baccelli [25] reported a coverage study of heterogeneous cellular-based VNETs that were more in-depth than the one given before. The study that was presented in the publication [26] looked into the spectrum sharing and power allocation approach for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications in conjunction with the latency and reliability criteria that must be met. These communications make advantage of information that changes on the channel in a rather sluggish manner. Regarding both the resource allocation and the mode selection fronts, this research was carried out in order to gather information. In addition, a theoretical investigation on the outage probability and throughput for V2V underlaid cellular networks is presented in [27]. In addition, the effect that the recommended methodology for inversion power management and the biased mode selection technique have on the performance is described in this paper as well.

Since the fronthaul in hotspot zones is restricted, one of the most significant challenges that traditional cellular-based VNETs face is the growing need for communications that are both very trustworthy and low in latency [28]. This has become one of the most difficult difficulties for conventional cellular-based virtual network environments (VNETs).

In light of the findings of current research, it has come to light that incorporating switching mode selection into vehicular networks (VNETs) may significantly increase both the performance and the stability of the networks.

In spite of the numerous beneficial benefits, vehicular networks (VNET) are nevertheless confronted with a number of difficulties. First, the mobility of vehicles often leads to unpredictable network topologies, which makes it much more difficult to analyze performance [29]. Because of this, it is far more difficult to accurately forecast how effectively a system would operate. In addition, the line-of-sight (LOS) channel as well as the severe interferences brought on by other vehicles and other access points have the potential to significantly reduce performance [30]. The overwhelming majority of publications that have been published have only focused their attention on distance-based mode selection algorithms and computations for received signal-to-interference ratio (SIR).

1.1 Contribution

This article provides a strategy that makes use of caching, takes into consideration the design of the random vehicular network, and prioritizes content information that may be accessed quickly. In addition to this, the approach makes use of the information that is easily accessible. We analyze the coverage probability as well as the expected data rate for the V2I, V2V, and V2X modes when the Poisson line process is used to represent the distribution of APs and vehicles. This is done because the Poisson line process is utilized to represent the distribution of APs and vehicles. This is achieved by comparing the actual data rate with the data rate that was expected to be received. The findings of the study, which were then utilized to draw conclusions, took into account the influence of Rician channel propagations, route loss, the density of the nodes, as well as the constraint of coverage probability and utility ratio.

2 Proposed method

2.1 The structure of vehicular network

In this paper, we analyze a downlink vehicular network (VNET) [25]. To begin, we will discuss the road network in terms of a Poisson line process (PLP) \(\mathbb{p}_{l}\) with line density \(d_{l}\), which may be created by a homogeneous Poisson line process \(\mathbb{p}\) in the representation space \(C \equiv R\left[ {0,\pi } \right]\). To be more specific, we model the road network as a Poisson line process \(\mathbb{p}\) having line density \(d_{l}\). Each point \(\left( {\alpha_{i} ,\beta_{i} } \right)\) of \(\mathbb{p}\) corresponds to a line \(l_{i}\) with the equation

$$l\left( {\alpha_{i} ,\beta_{i} } \right) = \left\{ {\left( {x,y} \right) \in 2 R^{2} |x \cos \left( {\beta_{i} } \right) + y \sin \left( {\beta_{i} } \right) = \alpha_{i} } \right\}$$

where \(\beta\) is the angle at which the positive x-axis intersects the line \(l\) and \(\alpha\) stands for the shortest distance that can be traveled between the origin and the line [25]. Next, we describe the positions of the vehicles on each line as an independent one-dimensional (2D) PLP distribution \(\mathbb{p}_{v}\) with a density of \(d_{v}\). It is an indication that a vehicle is able to transfer its cached material to any nearby content demand vehicles in the route (VP) when the probability \(\left( p \right)\) that a vehicle is a V2V transmit vehicle is set to be between 0 and 1. As a result, it is possible to represent the locations of vehicles that employ vehicle-to-vehicle communication as a uniform thin layer \(\mathbb{p}_{{v \to {\text{transmit}}}}\) with the intensity \(d_{{v \to {\text{transmit}}}} = { }pd_{v}\). This allows the positions of the vehicles to be visualized more clearly.

In the meanwhile, the Marking Theorem states that the distribution of content that requires vehicles follows a stationary 2D PLP \(\mathbb{p}_{{v \to {\text{recieve}}}}\) with the density of \(d_{{v \to {\text{recieve}}}} = \left( {1 - p} \right)d_{v}\). Without compromising generality, we will assume that the VP is located at the origin and that the transmit vehicles are using the same frequency band as the APs. The translation of the origin when using Slivnyak's theorem [31] may be seen of as the inclusion of a point at the origin in the PLP of the representation space \(C\). By arguing that the starting point has shifted, we arrive at this understanding. Let us refer to the line that contains the origin and the 2D PLP on the line as \(\left( {l_{0} ,\alpha_{{l_{0} }} } \right)\) and \((\alpha_{0} ,\beta_{{\alpha_{0} }} )\), respectively. The line that contains the 2D PLP on the line is referred to as the tagged line for the vehicles in that path. Let us assume that multiple cache-enabled APs are situated in the path \({\mathcal{P}}_{i}\) according to a 2D PLP \(\mathbb{p}_{{v \to P_{i} }}\) with density \(d_{{v \to P_{i} }}\), and they link to the cloud servers. We assumed that each AP only had a single antenna configuration, and hence, we referred the access point transmit power AP as \({\text{Power}}_{{P_{i} }}\).

2.2 Vehicle mode cache size

In this VNET, the APs have the ability to cache numerous content files from the centralized cache library that is located on the cloud server. This library holds \(F\) contents \({\mathcal{F}} = \left\{ {1,2, \ldots ,F} \right\}\) that users may request [32]. Without limiting the scope of the statement, we might say that each content \(k\) has a fixed size \(s_{k}\). After then, the vehicles utilize their wireless connections to store part of the data they have gotten from the APs. We assume that the contents of \(k_{i}\), \(k_{v}\) and \(k_{x}\) are fixed for a significant amount of time and are set to reflect the restricted local cache size of the V2I, V2V and V2X transmit vehicles, respectively. \(k_{i}\), \(k_{v}\) and \(k_{x}\) have sizes that are less than \(F\).

The findings of the study that was carried out and reported in the previous bodies of work [33] shown that people are more interested in downloading the items that are the most popular all around. To phrase it another way, the vast majority of users seldom have a need to have access to more than a portion of the database's overall material. As a result of this, it is generally assumed that the information that is stored in the V2I, V2V, and V2X transmitting vehicles is limited to that which has the greatest priority. The priority is defined using the priority probability which is modeled using the mode function,

$$f_{{{\text{mode}}}} \left( {F,\sigma } \right) = \frac{{1/j^{\sigma } }}{{\mathop \sum \nolimits_{i = 1}^{F} 1/i^{\sigma } }}.$$

here, \(\sigma > 0\), it controls the relative priority of files, and \(f_{{{\text{mode}}}} \left( {F,\sigma } \right) = 1\) when \(f_{{{\text{mode1}}}} \left( {F,\sigma } \right) > f_{{{\text{mode2}}}} \left( {F,\sigma } \right)\), \({\text{mode}} \to \left\{ {{\text{V}}2{\text{I}},{\text{V}}2{\text{V}},{\text{ V}}2{\text{X}}} \right\}\).

Therefore, the probability of caching may be defined as the likelihood that a content-requiring vehicle will be able to download the material it has requested from the associated node, denoted by the expression \(p^{{{\text{mode}}}} = \Pr \left( {N \in C_{{{\text{mode}}}} } \right)\).

If we make the reasonable assumption that V2I, V2V, and V2X transmit vehicles only store the content that is most often requested in their local caching, then, we are able to write the caching probabilities of the following:

$$p^{{{\text{V2I}}}} = \Pr \left( {N \in C_{{{\text{V2I}}}} } \right) = \mathop \sum \limits_{i = 1}^{{C_{{{\text{V2I}}}} }} f_{{{\text{V2I}}}} \left( {F,\sigma } \right),$$
$$p^{{{\text{V2V}}}} = \Pr \left( {N \in C_{{{\text{V2V}}}} } \right) = \mathop \sum \limits_{i = 1}^{{C_{{{\text{V2V}}}} }} f_{{{\text{V2V}}}} \left( {F,\sigma } \right),$$
$$p^{{{\text{V2X}}}} = \Pr \left( {N \in C_{{{\text{V2X}}}} } \right) = \mathop \sum \limits_{i = 1}^{{C_{{{\text{V2X}}}} }} f_{{{\text{V2X}}}} \left( {F,\sigma } \right).$$

This notation allows us to compare the caching probabilities of the three types of vehicles.

2.3 Various modes of access paths

In this work, we take into consideration two different mode choices for vehicular communication. These mode choices are referred to as V2I mode, V2V mode and V2X mode. The VNET has the ability to choose an access mode on its own by taking into consideration both the network performance reward and the delay cost. The distance from node \({\mathfrak{n}}_{1}\) to \({\mathfrak{n}}_{2}\) in specific vehicle mode is written as \({\text{mode}}({\mathfrak{n}}_{1} - > {\mathfrak{n}}_{2} )\), and the fact that a tagged vehicle chooses to access a node that is situated on the specific mode.

V2I mode-based access path If a vehicle is able to directly download the required information from another V2I transmitting vehicle, then, the V2I mode-based access path will be picked as the best option. This is subject to the condition that the transmitting vehicle must be placed within a density constraint that is equal to \(d_{{v \to P_{i} }}\).

V2V mode-based access path If the vehicle is unable to discover a V2I transmitting vehicle within the distance density range \(d_{{v \to P_{i} }}\), or if the V2I transmit vehicle is unable to give the necessary content vehicle, then, the vehicle will transition to the V2V mode. This may also occur if the V2I transmit vehicle is unable to supply the necessary content vehicle. Because of this, it is absolutely necessary for V to choose the AP that is located in the region that is geographically closest to it.

V2X mode-based access path If a vehicle is unable to directly download the required information from another vehicle that is capable of transmitting V2X, then, the access path that is based on the V2X mode will be selected as the access method of choice. This is subject to the stipulation that the vehicle that is doing the transmitting is situated within an area with a density constraint of \(d_{{v \to P_{i} }}\).

A wireless connection will be created between the vehicle node and the service transmit vehicle node if a vehicle decides to operate in V2V mode. This connection will take place between the vehicle node and the service transmit vehicle node. After then, there would not be any need for any fronthaul since the material would have been transported directly to the vehicle. On the other hand, if the vehicle node is unable to locate its material in the vehicle that is transmitting it, it must convert to the V2I mode. On the other hand, if a vehicle node is linked with V2I and V2V has the necessary material stored in its cache, then, the V2I will transmit the content straight directly to the vehicle without going via any intermediate devices, this mode is V2X. In such case, the vehicle node will need to add an extra fronthaul load to its workload in order to download the data from the cloud server.

Let's use the variable \(p_{{{\text{mode}}}}\) to reflect the likelihood of finding at least one V2V transmit vehicle while adhering to the restrictions imposed by \(d_{{v \to P_{i} }}\). In the interim, it has saved the content that the vehicle node requested be cached in its memory. This was done in response to the request made by the vehicle node. We are able to quickly determine the distribution of the node number along a line if we use the properties of the two-dimensional PLP, which are provided as follows. The restriction that we need to adhere to is \(d_{{v \to P_{i} }}\). Using the formula below will allow you to accomplish this goal:

$$p_{{{\text{mode}}}} = 1 - \exp \left( { - 2p_{{{\text{mode}} \to {\text{transmit}}}} d_{{v \to P_{i} }} } \right).$$

We then calculate the number of potentail access mode vehicles using the formulas

\(N^{{{\text{V2I}}}} = N_{{v \to {\text{transmit}}}} \left( {1 - p^{{{\text{V2I}}}} } \right)\), \(N^{{{\text{V2V}}}} = N_{{v \to {\text{transmit}}}} \left( {1 - p^{{{\text{V2V}}}} } \right)\), and \(N^{{{\text{V2X}}}} = N_{{v \to {\text{transmit}}}} \left( {1 - p^{{{\text{V2X}}}} } \right)\) for V2I, V2V and V2X modes, respectively.

3 Performance analysis

The predicted data rate performance with three alternative access mode paths is derived using the stochastic geometry tool in this paragraph. In this article, the interference-limited situation is taken into consideration since the interference is far more significant than the noise. It is speculated that the radio channel combines typical pathloss propagation with localized instances of fast fading.

3.1 SIR Performance

The line-of-sight (LOS) element is so crucial to vehicular communications; it is often believed that the small-scale rapid fading follows the Rician distribution [34]. The previous consideration is the basis for this choice. Studies have revealed that the probability density function (PDF) for Rician fading may be represented by a scaled non-central chi-squared distribution with two degrees of freedom. The Rician factor quantifies how much more powerful the LOS component is compared to the dispersed ones. This ratio is expressed as a percentage. Let's establish that the tagged vehicle node has access to a specific transmit vehicle and that there is a distance \({\tau }_{v\to mode}\) between them. After that, the vehicle node received the SIR that is expressed as

$$\mathrm{SIR}\left(v\to {\tau }_{v\to \mathrm{mode}}\right)=\frac{Powe{r}_{{P}_{i}}{h}_{v\to mode}{\Vert {\tau }_{v\to mode}\Vert }^{-\alpha }}{{I}_{{l}_{o},{d}_{v\to mode}}}.$$

Here \(h_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}}\) describes the Rician channel between the tagged vehicle and the transmitting vehicle, and \(\tau_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}}^{ - \alpha }\) indicates the path loss. The expression \(I_{{l_{o} ,d_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}} }}\) is the interference that occurs between the specific path as a result of transmission on other paths.

3.2 Coverage probability and data rate

If the tagged vehicle makes the decision to drive in a specific mode, it will go to an access point (AP) in the neighborhood in order to get the information that it has requested in order to employ that mode of driving. The distance from the AP to the tagged vehicle can be calculated in the form of a probability density function by utilizing the formula [33]. When the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for a specific vehicle mode is higher than the threshold SIR, the probability of coverage can be estimated in closed form in such a way that \(P_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}} = \Pr \left( {{\text{SIR}}\left( {v \to \tau_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}} } \right) > {\text{Th}}_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}} } \right)\). This allows for an accurate calculation of the probability of coverage. Because of this, it is possible to arrive at a calculation of the probability of coverage that is more precise.

And the anticipated performance of the data rate \(\left( {\mathcal{R}} \right)\) in vehicular mode may be expressed as

$${\mathcal{R}}\left( {{\text{Th}}_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}} ,\alpha } \right) = P_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}} \cdot \log \left( {1 + {\text{Th}}_{{v \to {\text{mode}}}} } \right).$$

4 Experimental results

This section performs an experimental investigation of the coverage and data rate (in Mbps) performance for V2I and V2V using the MATLAB simulation environment.

Figures 1, 2 and 3 plots coverage probability vs SIR for V2I, V2V and V2X modes, respectively. The communication between V2I devices has the greatest coverage probability, followed by communication between V2V devices, and finally communication between V2X devices. This is due to the fact that V2I communication makes use of infrastructure-based transmitters, which have a greater range than V2V communication, which makes use of transmitters that are mounted on vehicles to communicate with one another. V2X communication may be less common in areas with heavy vegetation or tall structures than V2V communication. However, V2X communication is more likely to provide coverage in places with a high vehicle density.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Coverage probability versus SIR variations for V2I mode

Fig. 2
figure 2

Coverage probability versus SIR variations for V2V mode

Fig. 3
figure 3

Coverage probability versus SIR variations for V2X mode

Signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) reflects how strong the signal is compared to the interference, making the communication channel more reliable. The signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) not only has an impact on the distance that separates the transmitter and the receiver, but it also has an effect on the parameters of the coverage probability. Even though there is no change in the amount of space that is physically between the sender and the recipient, this is still the case. In many situations, the SIR for communication between V2I and V2V devices is the highest it can possibly be. This is followed by the SIR for communication between V2V and V2X devices, which is the lowest it can possibly be. Because the transmitters used in vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, also known as vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, are installed in the infrastructure rather than the vehicles, and because these transmitters have a higher power output than the transmitters used in vehicle-to-vehicle communication, which are installed in both vehicles. V2I communication is also known as vehicle-to-vehicle communication. Communication via V2I, as opposed to communication via V2V, is desirable for just this reason. The following is an explanation of the thought process that resulted in everything existing in its current state. In situations with dense foliage or towering structures, the SIR of V2X transmission may be lower than that of V2V communication. However, the possibility of interference with V2X communication is enhanced in areas that have a high population density and a big number of vehicles. These are both factors that contribute to traffic congestion.

Figures 4, 5 and 6 plots the coverage probability vs data rate for V2I, V2V and V2X modes, respectively. When the data rate is increased, the coverage probability will, in most cases, drop. This is due to the fact that a larger data throughput demands a stronger signal, which increases the likelihood that the signal may be disrupted by interference or obstructions. In addition to this, a larger data rate necessitates a greater bandwidth, which in some circumstances may be in short supply.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Coverage probability versus data rate variations for V2I mode

Fig. 5
figure 5

Coverage probability versus data rate variations for V2V mode

Fig. 6
figure 6

Coverage probability versus data rate variations for V2X mode

The data rate will also be a factor in determining the variation in coverage probability that exists between V2I, V2V, and V2X communication. When dealing with lower data rates, the disparity in coverage probability that exists between the three forms of communication is rather minor. The difference in coverage probability, however, might become rather noticeable when dealing with greater data rates. This is due to the fact that infrastructure-based transmitters are used in V2I communication, while vehicle-based transmitters are utilized in V2V and V2X communication. Infrastructure-based transmitters have a greater range and a higher power output than vehicle-based transmitters.

The probabilities of V2V mode growing as fading factor (Rician factor) grow larger. The coverage probability that may be reduced in V2V mode because the fading factors are becoming the dominating component to the average power in the diffuse components. This is because the Rician factor will cause an increase in the probability that the V2V mode will take place. The reason for this is due to the fact that. In addition, when the path loss component is neglected to take into account, the coverage probability also improves, as can be shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. When the coverage probability is less than 0.1, our theoretical analysis is supported by a little gap (within a few percent) in the approximate analytical response. This can be seen by observing the theoretical curves in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, which presents both the theoretical and simulation findings. In this figure, both the theoretical and simulation findings are displayed.

The predicted data rate performance in V2I mode is superior than others due to the fact that V2I communication at a closer distance has the potential to effectively boost the system's performance. This may be shown by contrasting the data rates of the two modes. Additionally, it is reasonable to anticipate that the data rates offered by the mode will decrease in a way that is linearly proportional to the growth in distance between the transmitter and access points.

This is because an increased distance between nodes indicates that the pathloss will also increase, which will lead to a decline in performance. In contrast, raising the SIR threshold initially improves the V2I mode's rate performance before causing it to deteriorate later in the trial.

5 Conclusion

In this study, we address a challenge in VNETs that involves the selection of switching modes. In order to achieve the highest possible level of utility ratio, we suggest an V2I/V2V/V2X mode switching strategy for vehicular networks. In contrast to the majority of currently available solutions, the BS has the ability to dynamically choose the communication mode that will be used for each vehicle pair. The findings that we obtained after applying the proposed method demonstrated that the coverage probability for each vehicle is dictated by the SIR threshold. As a consequence, the dependability both the average data rates and the coverage improves.

The impact of the switching mode allocation is only taken into consideration in this paper with regard to the number of vehicles and the distance between vehicles. However, there are other elements, such as the terrain, the weather, and the existence of impediments, that might also have an effect on the ideal switching mode. In future, it may be possible to investigate how these additional parameters might be incorporated into the switching mode allocation process. The proposed algorithm has only been evaluated in simulation up until this point; testing it in real-world circumstances would be beneficial. In subsequent development, the algorithm might be put through its paces in realistic settings to evaluate how well it operates under a variety of circumstances.

Availability of data and materials

No data available.

Change history









Intelligent Transportation System




Channel state information


Quality of service


Vehicle to infrastructure






Vehicular networks


Poisson line processes


Cox point process




Access point


Probability density function


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This work was supported by the Open University of Guangdong, Research on Curriculum Reform and Practice of Network Interconnection Technology in the Context of High-performance Computing and IPv6 (Project No. 2022FJG03).

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Lu, D. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Switching mode allocation in planning paths for vehicular network communication. J Wireless Com Network 2023, 99 (2023).

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