Particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based node and link lifetime prediction algorithm for route recovery in MANET
© Manickavelu and Vaidyanathan; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 27 July 2013
Accepted: 20 May 2014
Published: 3 July 2014
In the conventional mobile ad hoc network (MANET) systems' route rediscovery methods, there exists route failure in all route discovery methods resulting in data loss and communication overheads. Hence, the routing has to be done in accordance with mobility character of the network. In this manuscript, a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based lifetime prediction algorithm for route recovery in MANET has been proposed. This technique predicts the lifetime of link and node in the available bandwidth based on the parameters like relative mobility of nodes and energy drain rate, etc. Using predictions, the parameters are fuzzified and fuzzy rules have been formed to decide on the node status. This information is made to exchange among all the nodes. Thus, the status of every node is verified before data transmission. Even for a weak node, the performance of a route recovery mechanism is made in such a way that corresponding routes are diverted to the strong nodes. With the aid of the simulated results, the minimization of data loss and communication overhead using PSO prediction has been discussed in detail.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a multihop wireless network with mobile nodes that can move independently. MANET has no infrastructure in the sense that it does not require any access points or base stations for transmission . Nodes can communicate with each other directly or through intermediates . As the nodes move arbitrarily in the network, the network topology can change frequently. One node will communicate with the other node directly within sufficient radio propagation and indirectly through multihop routing with all other nodes. To help such kind of communication, many routing algorithms already have been developed. In MANET, the nodes are randomly present and they are supposed to develop and maintain the entire network automatically; hence, the routing algorithms are crucial. Due to active topology and limited resources, developing a dynamic routing protocol that can efficiently find a routing path with low control overhead is very important in MANETs [3–5]. Most of the devices and systems in MANET are designed in a performance-oriented manner, not considering the energy efficiency .
1.2 Significance of node and link lifetime prediction for route recovery process
In general, the network depends on the node assistance for providing the packet routing. Routing is the basic operation in ad-hoc networks. The routing algorithm should be robust, adaptive, and in a self-organized way [5, 7]. Nodes cannot forward the data packets to the receiver node when the prediction error is less than a pre-configured threshold value. Prediction is used to make the decision for transmission . A. Vasilakos et al.  have presented an application of evolutionary-fuzzy prediction in inter-domain routing of broadband network connections with quality-of-service requirements in the case of an integrated ATM and SDH networking architecture.
The node mobility increases the complexity of routing because the greater the mobility of the nodes, the more chances of link breakage. This breakage will in turn lead to increased routing control overhead and will reduce the efficiency of the network due to the increased frequency of the route discovery process. Hence, the action of link breakages in MANET becomes a vital factor. Further, this kind link breakage will also lead to frequent path failures and may cause route reconstructions. As a result, the overhead of the routing protocol will be increased and the lesser packet delivery ratio and longer end-to-end delay will be terminated [4, 5]. Re-routing in a mobile ad-hoc network is costly and would result in flooding the network due to the lack of infrastructure . In addition to that, the re-route discovery is also leading to the large control message overhead and high latency. Therefore, the re-route discovery reduces efficiency of the networks . Routing in MANET is restricted by the network breakage due to their node mobility or energy depletion of the mobile nodes [12, 13].
The existing MANET routing protocols do not operate well in environments prone to frequent and long-lived disruptions. These routing protocols assume usually connected network and require an end-to-end path to exist in order for a source to send data to a destination . Nodes lie near the station are often included in the routing path. Hence, the energy of the node drains quickly .
1.4 Salient feature of particle swarm optimization
Besides computational intelligence (CI) , artificial intelligence techniques are nowadays involved in various applications. Several studies make use of genetic algorithm (GA)-based techniques to solve network problems . Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a stochastic optimization technique developed by the inspiration of the social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. In PSO, each single solution is a ‘bird’ in the search space (particle). The strength value is combined with each particle, which is calculated by the fitness function to be optimized, and it has the velocity, which expresses the flying of the particle. The particles will fly in the search space and will adjust with the velocities dynamically according to their historical behaviors. This process will guide the particles to fly toward the better search area in the search space. In MANET, the work of sending the packets from source to destination is difficult because of the mobility of the elements and there is no central control. To solve these problems, the swarm intelligence concept can be applied. The PSO algorithm was initially introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart (1995) in terms of social and cognitive behavior. This technique resolves the problems in various fields such as engineering and computer science [18–20].
2 Related works
Xin Ming Zhang et al.  have proposed an estimated distance (EstD)-based routing protocol (EDRP) to guide a route discovery. This protocol can restrict the propagation range of route request and reduce the routing overhead. The change regularity of the received signal strength is exploited to estimate the geometrical distance between a pair of nodes, which is called the estimated geometrical distance (EGD). An estimated topological distance (ETD) is a topology-based EstD that can mitigate the effect of inaccurate EGD. The EstD is a combination of EGD and ETD. Every node evaluates the link quality through the computational process of the EGD to eliminate the weak links and then uses the EstD to steer the route request packets toward the general direction of the destination.
A. K. Daniel et al.  have proposed a new protocol in wireless mobile heterogeneous networks based on the use of path information, traffic, stability estimation factor, and bandwidth resource information at each node for allocating the route path and buffer. This can handle the hand-off problem of the mobile network. It uses two buffers for the new call and hand-off calls. If there is no channel available instead of dropping them, it will store in the buffer. Whenever the channel is free, it will allocate the packets for communication. This protocol greatly improves the performance of the network.
C. Priyadharshini et al.,  have proposed a new algorithm, which utilizes the network parameters related to dynamic nature of nodes through energy drain rate and relative mobility estimation rate to predict the node lifetime and link lifetime. The least dynamic route has been selected for forwarding the data packets. Finally, this route lifetime prediction algorithm is implemented in the new protocol environment, which is based on the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol. This new protocol outperforms the existing protocols like the lifetime prediction routing (LPR) and DSR protocols in terms of throughput, routing failure, routing overhead, packet loss ratio, and packet delivery ratio.
Q. Han et al.  have proposed a link availability prediction-based reliable routing for MANETs that takes unpredictable topology changes and frequent link failure into account. The link availability is predicted over a short period of time by estimating the distance between two adjacent nodes. They have derived an analytical expression for link availability based on the relative mobility of the nodes.
Yen Yun-Sheng et al.  have proposed a multi-constrained QoS multicast routing method using genetic algorithm. It uses the available resources and minimum computation time in a dynamic environment. By selecting the appropriate values for parameters such as crossover, mutation, and population size, the genetic algorithm improves and tries to optimize the routes.
3 Work description
In PSO, every particle is considered as a possible solution to the numerical optimization problem in a D-dimensional space. In this search space, each particle contains its assigned location and velocity.
Let Pi denote the particle's position, Vi denote the particle's velocity, Lbp be the local memory space, and Gbp be the global memory space.
3.1 Estimation of metrics
3.1.1 Link lifetime
Link lifetime or link availability is defined as the probability that a link will be continuously available for a specified period of time. The link availability can be predicted accurately over a short period of time, by estimating the distance between two nodes .
Let Mi represent the link, xi be the connection, LTxi the connection lifetime, Ni-1 and Ni be the adjacent nodes, and BN i and BN i-1 be the battery lifetime of the node Ni.
Thus, the lifetime of route R is defined as the minimum value of the lifetime of both nodes and connections involved in route R.
3.1.2 Node lifetime
The nodes may exist in two states such as active and inactive modes. The active mode node drains more energy that results in shorter lifetime than the inactive mode node. Therefore, the node lifetime routing depends upon the energy state of nodes such as residual energy and energy drain rate .
Let REi be the residual energy of the Ni, EDi be the energy depletion rate of Ni and T be the duration in seconds.
3.1.3 Available bandwidth
Every node is in charge for estimating the available bandwidth on its link. For a given node ,
let β be the available bandwidth and C be the link capacity associated with one-hop neighbor i.
AR is the cumulative assigned rates for all incoming and outgoing flows.
3.2 PSO-based lifetime prediction algorithm
Our particle swarm optimization-based proposed algorithm predicts the link lifetime and node lifetime, available bandwidth based on the parameters such as relative mobility of nodes, energy drain rate and link capacity, respectively. It is described below.
When the nodes are deployed in the network, swarm particles (SPi) are initialized such that the particle's position is randomly dispersed in space. Each SPi represents a search window equivalent to the node's position and velocity (Pi, Vi).
Each SPi monitors certain parameters of each node such as node lifetime, link lifetime, and available bandwidth.
where α1, α2, and α3 are the weight values.
The local best (Lbp) and global best (Gbp) value of fitness and position of each particle is estimated.
If F i > F i (L bpi)
Update the position of Lbp with the fitness value Fi
If F i > F i (G bpi)
Update the position of Gbp with fitness value Fi
The value updated in the global best particle is considered as the best-predicted value.
The predicted link lifetime, node lifetime, and available bandwidth are fuzzified and fuzzy rules are formed to decide the type of node whether it is a weak, normal, or strong node.
3.3 Fuzzy-based node status estimation
This technique involves the detection of the node's status by fuzzy logic technique. The steps to determine the fuzzy rule-based interference are as follows:
Fuzzification: In Fuzzification, the crisp inputs are obtained from the selected input variables and then the degrees to which the inputs belong to each of the suitable fuzzy set are estimated.
Rule evaluation: The fuzzified inputs are taken and applied to the antecedents of the fuzzy rules. It is then applied to the consequent membership function.
Aggregation of the rule outputs: This involves merging of the output of all rules.
Defuzzification: The merged output of the aggregate output fuzzy set is the input for the defuzzification process and a single crisp number is obtained as output.
Fuzzy rules for the determining output
Table 1 demonstrates the rules of the fuzzy inference system. This illustrates the function of the inference engine and method by which the outputs of each rule are combined to generate the fuzzy decision.
If M, N, and AB are low, the node status will be weak.
If M and N are low and AB is high, the node status will be weak.
If M and AB are low and N is high, the node status will be weak.
If M is low and N and AB are high, the node status will be normal.
If M is high and N and AB are low, the node status will be weak.
If M and AB are high and N is low, the node status will be normal.
If M and N are high and AB is low, the node status will be normal.
If M, N, and AB are high, the node status will be strong.
Fuzzy_cost is used to specify the degree of decision making, zi is the fuzzy all rules, and variable and γ (zi) is its membership function. The output of the fuzzy cost function is modified to crisp value as per this defuzzification method.
3.4 Route discovery
3.5 Route maintenance
Before a node transmits the data to the next node, it checks the status of that node. If the status is normal or strong, it will transmit the packet to the next node. If the status of the successor node is weak, it will send a route recovery warning (RRW) message to all neighboring nodes. Upon receiving the RRW packet, the neighboring nodes look around to find strong nodes. If it finds strong nodes, they will initiate the local route recovery process by changing the route to the strong nodes. If they cannot find any strong nodes, they will initiate the route recovery process through normal nodes.
3.5.1 Advantages of the proposed approach
Since the lifetime factor of the node and link is taken into account for routing, data loss is reduced.
The route failure is greatly minimized thereby reducing the overhead.
PSO algorithm is easier to implement and very efficient in the global search.
4 Simulation results
Number of nodes
1,000 × 1,000
250,500,750, and 1,000 bytes
Speed of nodes
10 to 50 m/s
4.1 Performance metrics
The performance of PNLP technique is compared with the link availability prediction (LAP)-based routing protocol .
The performance is evaluated mainly, according to the following metrics:
Average packet delivery ratio: It is the ratio of the number of packets received successfully and the total number of packets transmitted.
Drop: It is the number of packets dropped during the transmission.
Delay: It refers to the average end-to-end delay of packets.
Energy: It is the average energy consumed for the data transmission.
Overhead: It is the ratio between the number of packets rejected and number of packets sent.
4.2.1 Based on packet size
4.2.2 Based on speed
In this manuscript, a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based lifetime prediction algorithm for route recovery in MANET has been proposed. This technique predicts the lifetime of link and node in the available bandwidth based on the parameters like relative mobility of nodes and energy drain rate, etc.. Using predictions, the parameters are fuzzified and fuzzy rules have been formed to decide on the node status. This information is made to exchange among all the nodes. Thus, the status of the every node is verified before data transmission. Even for a weak node, the performance of a route recovery mechanism is made in such a way that corresponding routes are diverted to the strong nodes. With the aid of the simulated results, the minimization of data loss and communication overhead is using PSO prediction.
Dr. V. Rhymend Uthariaraj Professor & Director, Ramanujan Computing Centre firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Yogendra Kumar J, Rakesh Kumar V: Energy level accuracy and life time increased in mobile ad-hoc networks using OLSR. Int. J. adv. Res. Comput. Sci. Softw. Eng 2012, 2: 7.Google Scholar
- Ajay K, Sheethal MS, Shany J, Priya P: Optimum route life time prediction of trusted dynamic mobile nodes in large scale MANETs. Inter. J. Ad hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing 2012, 3: 3.Google Scholar
- Natsheh E, Khatun S, Jantan AB, Subramaniam S: Fuzzy metric approach for route lifetime determination in wireless ad hoc networks. Int. J of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing 2007, 3: 1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahmed I: KE Tepe, BK Singh, Reliable coverage area based link expiration time (LET) routing metric for mobile ad hoc networks, in Ad Hoc Networks. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg; 2010:466-476.Google Scholar
- Zhang XM, En BW, Jing JX, Dan KS: An estimated distance-based routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans on Vehicular Tech 2011, 60(7):3473-3484.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Vasilakos AV, Chen M, Liu Y, Kwon TT: A survey of green mobile networks: opportunities and challenges. MONET 2012, 17(1):4-20.Google Scholar
- Daniel AK, Singh R, Saini JP: Swarm intelligence based routing technique for call blocking in heterogeneous mobile adhoc network using link stability factor and buffering technique for QoS. Int. J. Res. Rev. Comput. Sci 2011, 2(1):65-72.Google Scholar
- Wei G, Ling Y, Guo B, Xiao B, Vasilakos AV: Prediction-based data aggregation in wireless sensor networks: combining grey model and Kalman filter. Comput. Commun 2011, 34: 793-802. 10.1016/j.comcom.2010.10.003View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vasilakos A, Ricudis C, Anagnostakis K, Pedryca W, Pedryca W: Evolutionary-fuzzy prediction for strategic QoS routing in broadband networks. The 1998 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems Proceedings, Anchorage, AK,4–9May 1998 1998, 2: 1488-1493.Google Scholar
- Rajeswari P: Estimation of node lifetime based on dynamic nature routing in MANET. Inter. J Adv. Info. Sci. Tech. 2013, 9: 9.Google Scholar
- Narendra BY, Suresh Babu CH: Route recovery schemes for efficient MANET. Inter. J. Emerg. Trends. Eng. Dev 2013, 1: 3.Google Scholar
- Shuchita U, Charu G: Node disjoint multipath routing considering link and node stability protocol: a characteristic evaluation. Inter. J Com Sci. Issues 2010, 7(1):2.Google Scholar
- Yuanyuan Z, Kai X, Deshi L, Athanasios VV: Directional routing and scheduling for green vehicular delay tolerant networks. Wireless Netw. 2013, 19(2):161-173. 10.1007/s11276-012-0457-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thrasyvoulos S, Rao NBR, Thierry T, Katia O, Athanasios V: Routing for disruption tolerant networks: taxonomy and design. Wireless Netw. 2010, 16(8):2349-2370. 10.1007/s11276-010-0276-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chilamkurti N, Zeadally S, Vasilakos A, Sharma V: Cross-layer support for energy efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. J. Sensors 2009., 2009:Google Scholar
- Ahmet Sekercioglu Y, Andreas P, Athanasios V: Computational intelligence in management of ATM networks: a survey of current state of research. Soft. Comput. 2001, 5(4):257-263. 10.1007/s005000100099View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andreas P, Stylianou G, Pattichis CS, Sekercioglu A, Vasilakos A: Bandwidth allocation for virtual paths (BAVP): investigation of performance of classical constrained and genetic algorithm based optimization techniques. INFOCOM 2000, Tel Aviv 26-30 Mar 2000, 1501-1510.Google Scholar
- Waseem S, Farrukh AK, Abdul BS: Weighted clustering using comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization for mobile ad hoc networks. Inter. J. Future Generation Commun. Netw 2010, 3: 1.Google Scholar
- Shahriar A, Sima Uyar A: A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm. In The 10th International Conference on Artificial Evolution. Angers, France; 24 October 2011.Google Scholar
- Priyadharshini C, Thamarai Rubini K: PSO based route lifetime prediction algorithm for maximizing network lifetime in MANET. 2012 International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Technology (ICRTIT), Chennai, Tamil Nadu 19-21 Apr 2012, 270-275.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Priyadharshini C, ThamaraiRubini K: Predicting route lifetime for maximizing network lifetime in MANET. 2012 International Conference on Computing, Electronics and Electrical Technologies (ICCEET), Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu 21-22 Mar 2012, 792-797.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han Q, Bai Y, Gong L, Wu W: Link availability prediction-based reliable routing for mobile ad hoc networks. The 10th IET Communications 2011 2011, 5: 2291-2300. doi:10.1049/iet-com.2010.0946MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Yun-Sheng Y, Han-Chieh C, Ruay-Shiung C, Athanasios V: Flooding-limited and multi-constrained QoS multicast routing based on the genetic algorithm for MANETs. Math. Comput. Model. 2011, 53(11–12):2238-2250.Google Scholar
- Vishnu KS, Sarita SB: Agent based bandwidth reservation routing technique in mobile ad hoc networks. Inter. J. Adv. Comput Sci. Appl. 2011, 2: 12.Google Scholar
- ISI: Network simulator-ns-2. http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.