Examples of the American Physical Society (APS) reference style are shown below.
See our editorial policies for author guidance on good citation practice.
Web links and URLs: All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. http://tumor.informatics.jax.org/mtbwi/index.do. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.
Example reference style:
Article within a journal
S Preuss, A Demchuk Jr., M Stuke, Appl. Phys. A 61, 33 (1995).
Article by DOI (with page numbers)
MK Slifka, JL Whitton, Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J. Mol. Med. 78, 74-80 (2000). doi:10.1007/s001090000086.
Article by DOI (before issue publication and with page numbers)
MK Slifka, JL Whitton, Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J. Mol. Med. (2000). doi:10.1007/s001090000086.
Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)
MK Slifka, JL Whitton, Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Dig. J. Mol. Med. (2000). doi:10.1007/s801090000086.
Journal issue with issue editor
J Smith (ed.), Rodent genes. Mod. Genomics J. 14(6) (1998).
Journal issue with no issue editor
Rodent genes, Mod. Genomics J. 14(6) (1998).
Book chapter, or an article within a book
DM Abrams, in Conductive Polymers, ed. by RS Seymour, A Smith (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1973), p. 307.
Complete book, authored
H Ibach, H Lüth, Solid-State Physics, 2nd edn. (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 45-56.
Complete book, edited
RS Seymour (ed.), Conductive Polymers (Plenum, New York, 1981).
Chapter in a book in a series without volume titles
DM MacKay, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, vol. 3, ed. by R Jung, DM MacKay (Springer, Heidelberg, 1973), p. 307.
Chapter in a book in a series with volume titles
SE Smith, in Neuromuscular Junction, ed. by E Zaimis. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 42 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976), p. 593.
OnlineFirst chapter in a series (without a volume designation but with a DOI)
Y Saito, H Hyuga, Rate equation approaches to amplification of enantiomeric excess and chiral symmetry breaking. Top. Curr. Chem. (2007). doi:10.1007/128_2006_108.
Proceedings as a book (in a series and subseries)
D Zowghi, in PRICAI '96: Topics in Artificial Intelligence, ed. by N Foo, R Goebel. 4th Pacific Rim Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Cairns, August 1996. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Lecture notes in artificial intelligence, vol. 1114 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1996), p. 157.
Article within conference proceedings with an editor (without a publisher)
M Aaron, in Proceedings of the Genomic Researchers, Boston, 1999, ed. by H. Williams.
Article within conference proceedings without an editor (without a publisher)
S-T Chung, RL Morris, in Abstracts of the 3rd International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 4-9 June 1978.
Article presented at a conference
S-T Chung, RL Morris, Isolation and characterization of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from Streptomyces fradiae. Paper presented at the 3rd international symposium on the genetics of industrial microorganisms, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 4-9 June 1978.
LO Norman, U.S. Patent 4,379,752, 9 Sept 1998.
Dissertation, PhD thesis
JW Trent, Dissertation, University of California, 1975.
Book with institutional author
International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee, Nomina anatomica. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1966).
In press article
R Holmes, in Science style manual, ed. by TC Jones (Sprint, London, 2006 in press).
J Cartwright, Big stars have weather too. (IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb, 2007), http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007.
Healthwise Knowledgebase (US Pharmacopeia, Rockville, 1998), http://www.healthwise.org. Accessed 21 Sept 1998.
Supplementary material/private homepage
J Doe, Title of supplementary material (2000), http://www.privatehomepage.com. Accessed 22 Feb 2000.
J Doe, Title of preprint (1999), http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/mydata.html. Accessed 25 Dec 1999.
J Doe, Trivial HTTP, RFC2169 (1999), ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2169.txt. Accessed 12 Nov 1999.
ISSN International Centre: The ISSN register (2006), http://www.issn.org. Accessed 20 Feb 2007.