- Open Access
Survey of radio resource management issues and proposals for energy-efficient cellular networks that will cover billions of machines
© Song et al. 2016
- Received: 20 February 2016
- Accepted: 11 May 2016
- Published: 1 June 2016
A huge increase of machines attached to wireless networks is expected in the next few years. A large part of these machines will be covered by some wireless wide area networks. The arrival of cellular M2M (machine-to-machine) communication poses new requirements due to its specific characteristics. For most of the cellular M2M applications, the essential requirement is low energy consumption level or high energy efficiency. This survey provides a global view of the network technologies previewed for cellular M2M. In this survey, we study the existing classifications of M2M applications according to different criteria in the literature. The comparison of traffic characteristics between M2M and human-to-human is also proposed. Quality of service (QoS) requirements for typical M2M applications are resumed. The advance of reference M2M network architectures proposed by the Standard Development Organization (SDO) is investigated. We identify two possible effort directions to improve the energy efficiency for cellular M2M. The first one is to evolve the current existing 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Consortium cellular networks to effectively support MTC (Machine Type Communication). The other direction is to design M2M-dedicated networks from scratch, which are often called low-power wide-area (LPWA) networks. We review, compare and categorize the proposals related to energy issues of cellular M2M mainly over the period 2011–2015 for the first direction. We introduce the development of LPWA networks for the other research directions. We highlight that the cooperative relaying, the design of energy-efficient signaling and operation, the new radio resource allocation schemes, and the energy-efficient random access procedure are the main points of improvement. It is important to jointly use the aforementioned approaches, for example, joint design of random access control and radio resource allocation, to seek for a trade-off between energy efficiency and other system performances.
Machine-to-machine communication (M2M), also known as Machine Type Communication (MTC), is an emerging technology allowing devices to mutually communicate without (or only limited) human intervention, which is expected to gain more popularity in the next decade and be an integrated part of the future wireless networks [1, 2]. As an example, Ericsson estimates that 2 out of 50 billion MTC devices in 2020 will be connected by cellular technology .
Design from scratch of M2M-dedicated networks, i.e., the emerging Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN). A representative example is the LoRaWAN (LoRa Wide Area Network)  proposed by LoRa Alliance 
Evolution from existing wireless networks, which consists of adapting 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) cellular networks to support MTC traffic apart from HTC traffic, for example the Long Term Evolution (LTE)-M .
For both the aforementioned approaches, the challenges to be solved are the same: MTC subscription, network/overload control (also called massive access control), security in M2M, diverse quality of service (QoS) provisioning, energy efficiency, etc. Recently, energy efficiency-related research has attracted more and more attention, since it is deemed as a key performance indicator that determines if MTC is accepted as a promising technology [8, 9]. Note that energy efficiency actually covers the device side and network side. For cellular M2M, the network side energy efficiency [10, 11] is not a principal constraint; hence, it is not within the scope of this article. Instead, MTC devices are usually battery-operated, transmit small data, and require a long battery lifetime . The device side energy efficiency is a key problem to make 3GPP cellular networks as a competitive solution for MTC. Thus, we put more focus on advance research about the cellular MTC energy-efficiency issue, especially in radio access networks.
With regard to cellular M2M-related surveys, Taleb and Kunz  focus on MTC devices subscription control and network congestion/overload control. Chen and Lien  talk about research efforts for efficient MTC and explore various M2M-related issues such as deployment, operation, security, and privacy. Andres et al.  make a survey of proposals improving the operation of random access channel of LTE/LTE-A and evaluate the energy consumption of LTE random-access procedure. Poncela et al.  identify the limitations of 4G for MTC (signaling, scheduler) and resume the improvements of LTE/LTE-A to handle M2M traffic. Several review papers [17, 18] discuss MTC in 3GPP LTE/LTE-A networks, introduce M2M use cases in detail, and identify the challenges with regard to M2M over LTE/LTE-A, e.g., random access congestion, resource allocation with QoS provisioning. Wang et al.  survey and discuss various remarkable techniques, in terms of all components of the mobile networks (e.g., data centers, macrocell, femtocell), towards green mobile cellular networks. Ismail et al.  investigate energy efficiency from the perspective of network operators and mobile users. Yang et al.  make a survey about software-defined wireless network (SDWN) and wireless network virtualization (WNV) for the future mobile wireless networks, which helps define the future mobile wireless network architecture to tackle with heterogeneous traffic.
To our best knowledge, a comprehensive survey about device side energy-efficiency issues in radio networks used for cellular M2M service is still not available in the literature. Therefore, the goal of this article is to compare and categorize existing M2M-related energy-efficiency proposals before discussing the trends for cellular M2M research. In addition, in this article, we want to provide a short overview of cellular M2M applications, detail different types of classification of M2M services, and propose a synthesis for the QoS demands. We also review the advances of LPWAN, which are MTC-dedicated networks, which today experience a rapid development. The rest of this article is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the typical cellular M2M applications and several classifications according to different criteria and introduces a QoS requirement table for some typical cellular M2M applications. Section 3 compares the differences between H2H and M2M in terms of traffic characteristics. Section 4 first talks about conventional M2M solutions in cellular networks then presents the advance of reference M2M network architecture. Section 5 resumes the development of LPWAN. Section 6 presents, categorizes, and compares all found proposals related to energy issues for MTC in cellular networks. Section 7 gives the conclusions obtained from this survey.
Backup for landline
Control of physical access
Intelligent transport system
Pay as you drive
Point of sales
Monitoring vital signals
Supporting the aged or handicapped
Web access telemedicine points
Digital photo frame
Other futuristic applications
Information ambient society
2.1 Classification according to reliability and quantity of connected machines
According to reliability and quantity of connected machines, the project METIS divides M2M applications into two categories: mMTC and uMTC . mMTC refers to massive MTC and provides connectivity for a large number of cost and energy-constrained devices. Sensor and actuator deployments can be in a wide area for surveillance and area covering measurements, but also co-located with human users, as in body-area networks. The main attribute of this service is the massive number of connected devices, where the required rates decrease as the number of devices grows significantly. uMTC addresses the needs for ultra-reliable, time-critical services, e.g., V2X (vehicle-to-vehicle/infrastructure) applications and industrial control applications. Both examples require reliable communication, and V2X additionally requires fast discovery and communication establishment. The main attribute is high reliability, while the number of devices and the required data rates are relatively low.
2.2 Classification according to the level of mobility and dispersion
2.3 Classification according to delay tolerance level
According to the delay tolerance level, M2M applications are divided into four classes: class 1 (elastic applications), class 2 (hard real-time applications), class 3 (delay-adaptive applications), and class 4 (rate-adaptive applications) . The class 1 applications are generally rather tolerant of delays, for example, file downloading of remote MTC devices from MTC servers. The class 2 applications need their data to be served within a given delay constraint. The typical example of class 2 application is vehicle and asset tracking. Similar to class 2, the class 3 applications are usually delay sensitive, but most applications of class 3 can be made rather tolerant of occasional delay-bound violation and dropped packets. The class 4 applications adjust their transmission rates according to available radio resources while maintaining moderate delays.
2.4 Classification according to data reporting mode
According to data reporting mode, M2M applications are classified into five categories [9, 26, 27]: time-driven, query-driven, event-driven, continuous-based, and hybrid-driven. Time-driven M2M applications refer to those applications where machines periodically turn on their sensors and transmitters to transmit the collected data. Query-driven applications reply to certain instructions from MTC application servers by transmitting data. This type of applications allows packet omissions, as adjacent data reports usually contain redundant information. Event-driven applications react to certain critical query or event. Normally, applications fall into this category when they use priority alarm messages (PAM). Continuous-based M2M applications make the devices send their data continuously to the remote server at a pre-specified rate. Hybrid-driven is a combination of the aforementioned three types.
2.5 QoS feature for typical M2M applications
QoS feature and cellular M2M service. The values we propose are based on different references. We give only indicative values
64.000 b/s 
Less than 1 s
Less than 500 B
Pay as you pay
500–1000 B per message
15 s–15 min 
10–100 kps 
0.1–2 s 
Monitoring vital signals
Less than 200 B per message 
Monitoring in emergency
Less than 200 B per message 
Less than 5 ms 
Vending machine control
3.1 Comparison of M2M and H2H traffic
Difference between M2M and H2H
10 ms ∼several minutes 
250 ms (voice) to few seconds
(email for example)
extension slots, USB, memory, CPU, etc.
GPS, Bluetooth, USB, memory, CPU,
flash storage, etc.
Packet loss radio
Relatively high 
Most of the M2M devices
Humans are very rarely considered
(90 % according to )
fixed in practical mobile networks
Mainly SMS or data reporting
Short but more or less frequent ,
Long but less frequent
depending on the applications:
monitoring, transport or others
MTC traffic is mainly generated in uplink
Traditionally less traffic in uplink
but increase rapidly with the flourishing of interactive
applications such as social network
Less traffic except for some application
Currently most traffic, for instance,
requiring interaction between sensors
Web browsing and multimedia
and MTC servers, for example
consumer electronics use case
Generally very short.
Typically big, especially for multimedia and
In some cases could increase,
for example, if video sequences are uploaded
Number of devices
Hundreds or thousands of devices per base station
At most hundreds of UE,
typically tens of UEs per base station 
Up to a few years,
Order of days or weeks,
especially for deployment locations
Human could easily recharge their device
with difficult access
Energy efficiency, latency
Delay, throughput, packet loss
for user experience
Not all MTC applications have the same characteristics and not every optimization is suitable to all applications; therefore, features are defined to provide some structure to the customer and the network is then tuned accordingly to needs.
In many applications, saving energy for machines is more important than increasing the throughput because machines usually transmit small data but have limited electric energy . The energy efficiency is deemed as a key performance indicator that determines if M2M communication is accepted as a promising communication technology . One of the important requirements in cellular M2M system is extremely low power consumption . The hard QoS guarantee is deemed as one of the most important requirements since disasters occur if timing constraints are violated for some MTC applications . Energy efficiency is the key in M2M communications, since machine devices are generally powered by batteries . A critical issue in M2M communications is energy efficiency as typically the machine devices are powered by batteries of low capacity and thus it is the key to optimize their consumption .
3.2 M2M traffic-related research efforts
The first large-scale measurement about M2M traffic over an actual cellular network is in . The possible impacts of MTC traffic on H2H traffic over cellular networks are evaluated in . Traditionally, traffic models are classified as source traffic model and aggregated traffic models . Source traffic model is precise but not scalable with number of MTC devices, and aggregated traffic model is less complex but not precise. A couple Markov-modulated Poisson process (CMMPP) model is proposed by combing the respective advantages of source traffic and aggregated traffic models.
4.1 Conventional M2M solution in 3GPP networks
The 3GPP GSM cellular networks have been regarded as an ideal carrier for M2M, for the small data transmission, low data rate and energy efficiency, and low-cost hardware for MTC devices. Thus, lots of cellular-based commercial solutions  have been proposed via GSM using SMS or GPRS before 2010. However, for a long-term view, GSM is not the best choice for MTC. There are many reasons for that. First, the operators have the plan of spectrum refarming, that is, the spectrum resource will be allocated to the future generation of a cellular network with a higher spectrum efficiency. For example, AT&T recently announced the closure of its GSM networks in 2017 . Second, GSM is not able to handle the future massive number of MTC devices and cannot guarantee the QoS requirements for some M2M applications. Third, GSM can not satisfy the increasing demand for high data rate in M2M. Another limitation is that GSM requires MTC devices initiating connections , which can not satisfy the device trigger requirement . Thus, a shift from 2G to 3G/4G or more advanced standards can be expected in the next decade for the already deployed commercial M2M solution.
The 3G family, UMTS and HSPA, is not a suitable technology for MTC because of the power efficiency and cost of the modem. Overall, it is an overkill technology in terms of design since it provides much more than needed . As the roll out of 4G (mainly LTE and LTE-A) networks, the 4G technology is progressively attractive for MTC, among other reasons, the Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) air interface allows the scaling of bandwidth according to needs. However, the modem cost and global coverage are still issues to be solved.
As discussed in a previous section, M2M applications can be classified into four categories: time-driven, query-driven, event-driven, and hybrid-driven. In both time-driven and event-driven types, the M2M device initiates the communication and uploads the gathered data in the form of either SMS or packet data. When M2M devices are self-triggered by an expected event, they first send uplink preambles to establish Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection. With the establishment of RRC connection, M2M devices connect to the core network (CN). Then, M2M devices establish connection with M2M server in TCP/application layer, which involve many transmission overhead.
Direct model. The first and the most straightforward deployment paradigm is the direct model, where the application server (AS) connects directly to an operator network in order to communicate with the M2M devices without using the services of any external service capability server (SCS)
Indirect model. The second deployment paradigm is the indirect model, in which the AS connects indirectly to an operator network through the services of an SCS in order to utilize additional value-added services for M2M (e.g., control plane device triggering)
The third deployment paradigm is the hybrid model, where the AS uses the direct model and indirect model simultaneously in order to directly connect to an operator network to perform direct user plane communications with the M2M devices while also using an SCS.
4.2 Standardization of reference M2M Architecture
Given that there is not a consensus about MTC reference architecture, the Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) and research community have proposed a few proposals. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) provides a general M2M reference architecture with the purpose of designing an access and transmission technology independent service middle layer . Nowadays, the architecture-related works are transferred to oneM2M. The project oneM2M published their reference architecture at the beginning of 2015, which is similar but different than that of ETSI M2M. 3GPP proposes a MTC reference architecture with focus on improvement of the core network . IEEE 802.16p gives an overall architecture for M2M . The authors of  review and compare the aforementioned architectures then propose a hybrid reference model. Since the reference architectures of 3GPP and IEEE 802.16p are functionally equivalent, mainly the efforts of ETSI, oneM2M, and 3GPP are presented.
4.3 ETSI M2M reference architecture
4.4 oneM2M reference architecture
4.5 3GPP reference MTC architecture
The main contribution of ETSI M2M overall architecture is to standardize the resource structure representing the information contained in M2M-SC, but ETSI has not specified the standardization for M2M area network, access network, and core network.
The enhancement made by 3GPP supports the device trigger function. To this end, two new network nodes (MTC-IWF and SCS) and a series of reference points related to these two nodes are introduced. The first node, MTC Interworking Function (MTC-IWF), hides the internal PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) topology and relays or translates signaling protocols used over Tsp (shown in Fig. 5) to invoke specific functionality in the PLMN. The main functions of MTC-IWF are to authorize the SCS before communication establishment with the 3GPP network, receive a device trigger request from SCS, select the most efficient and effective device trigger delivery mechanism, etc. The SCS is an entity that connects to the 3GPP network to communicate with MTC devices and the MTC-IWF in the HPLMN. This entity offers capabilities to be used by one or multiple MTC Applications, and is controlled either by the mobile operator or a MTC service provider.
4.6 M2M architecture in the literature
Tier 1: the tier 1 consists of M2M applications and servers (namely M2M-A and M2M-S).
Tier 2: the most distinguished change is at tier 2, in which a new functional entity M2M-R (M2M relay function) is introduced. M2M-R is an extension of the conventional LTE-A relay functionality. This extension enables LTE-A relay node to act as a M2M data concentrator.
Tier 3: the most important functional entity at tier 3 is M2M-G, which is actually a gateway to serve M2M devices non-3GPP compliant. The full-fledged 3GPP MTC-G implementation has not been standardized ant thus is still an open research issue.
Tier 4: the tier 4 consists of those non-3GPP compliant M2M devices (e.g., devices using ZigBee)
The proposal in  actually leverages M2M gateway (M2M-R) to support non-3GPP compliant devices. The introduction of the M2M-R aggregates the packets from a large number of M2M devices into a single large packet, adds system capacity, and then reduces transmission.
The comparison among LPWAN solutions (All solutions are on ISM band, extracted from )
Up to 8
Up to 20
(but claims 25 ×
434, 868, 2.4GHz
varies by region
Depends on mode.
Not yet determined
8 bps–8 kpbs
up to 100 kpbs
up to 500 kbps
"10s of 1000s"
65535 hubs each,
of 255 nodes
16 M edge device
Public or private
Public or private
Public or private
Public or private
Public or private
(expect 80 % public)
(perhaps in future)
End-device: the end-device is the element in a LoRaWAN network which is responsible for collecting and uploading information to remote network server. LoRa supported functionalities can be classified to three classes: class A (bi-directional end-devices), class B (bi-directional end-devices with scheduled receive slots), and class C (bi-directional end-devices with maximal receive slots). All LoRaWAN end-devices at least support class A. According to applications, end-devices can optionally support class B and class C.
LoRa air interface: The LoRa air interface provides the connectivity between LoRa end-devices and gateway. It is on ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) band and based on LoRa modulation, which is a proprietary modulation scheme. The LoRa data rate ranges from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps. The selection of data rate is a trade-off between communication range and message duration, and communications with different data rates do not interfere with each other.
LoRa gateway: the LoRa gateway receives the communications from the LoRa end-devices and then transfers them to a network server via the backhaul system. Note that LoRa gateways may be co-located with a cellular base station. In this way, they are able to use spare capacity on the backhaul network.
Network server: the LoRa network server manages the network. The network server acts to eliminate duplicate packets, schedules acknowledgment, and adapts data rates (adaptive data rate scheme). The communication between the LoRa gateway and the network server is IP-based, and the underlying carrier networks can be wired or wireless, Ethernet or 3GPP cellular, public or private networks.
In order to answer the huge expected demand of cellular M2M coverage, the standardization organizations embarked on a process of standardizing narrow-band technology for use in mobile spectrum. Two possible tracks are addressed by the 3GPP. The first track is the evolution of LTE 3GPP cellular system with the objective of reducing the occupied bandwidth but still reusing the basic LTE principles. The second track is to propose a clean slate solution, which features narrow-band (NB) technologies and leverage the existing cellular infrastructure. One major difference between these two tracks relies in that whether it should redesign the radio interface and multiple access control mechanism for cellular M2M networks. As an effort in the first track, the 3GPP developed LTE-M specification in Rel-12  with introduction of a new low complexity device category (Cat-0). The device complexity of Cat-0 is 50 % of the previously defined Cat-1, which is the basic LTE terminal defined in the first LTE Release (Rel-8). Nowadays, 3GPP is considering to further optimize LTE-M in Rel-13: (1) bandwidth of 1.4 MHz and less complexity  and (2) a narrow-band evolution of LTE-M with bandwidth 200 kHz . For the clean slate solutions, the main idea is to sacrifice the data rate in order to gain energy efficiency and coverage extension. They are supposed to satisfy the following requirements: deployment in a small bandwidth (e.g. 200 kHZ), ultra low-cost terminal (less than 5 dollars), ultra-long battery life, and coverage extension of 20 dB with existing cellular technologies. The typical solutions include Narrow Band M2M (NB M2M), Narrow Band OFDMA, and Cooperative Ultra Narrow Band (C-UNB) . The deployment options include re-farming GSM spectrum, LTE band guard, and leftover fragments of spectrum during re-farming of 2G/3G to 4G.
When these standards will be available, the cellular M2M connectivity solutions may be more competitive, since they not only fulfill the requirements of extended coverage and long battery life, but also have the advantage of being able to operate in currently existing cellular network, thus requiring no additional deployment of antennas, radio, or other hardware. On the contrary, the proprietary (at least for the time-being) technologies such as Sigfox, On-Ramp, and Semtech require a dedicated network and maintenance team to deploy and maintain their services, which increases operational complexity for the operator. However, their M2M solution is currently available for the operators and starts to occupy some share of the market. In addition, some of the proprietary technologies such as LoRa have the plan to adapt their technology running on licensed spectrum and were submitted to GERAN  to keep their competitiveness.
The arrival of billions of connected machines in the short and mid terms is a huge challenge for cellular networks, although not all these machines will necessarily be connected to the latter. A part of the machines will only be connected to the ad hoc networks between each other, while some other will rely on the dedicated networks of LPWAN style. Yet, a large part of the machines will be better served within 3GPP cellular networks, especially the future 5G networks. Nowadays, 2G-style GSM or GPRS cellular is often used for cellular M2M service. However, GPRS is not suitable for M2M and often not competitive compared with LPWA solution, since it can not support a large number of devices, among other reasons. LPWA technologies and cellular 3GPP solutions will be the main support used for cellular M2M. In this paper, we describe the present state of these technologies and the evolutions as expected today.
We propose a synthesis for the QoS demands and the difference of characteristics between H2H and M2M. We then review the proposals for radio coverage and service of these machines. We identify the advantage of cellular networks for this expected service. The 3GPP cellular networks have a mature infrastructure to provide a wide-coverage, high-availability service and user subscription/management system, but the shortages of 3GPP networks are relatively high energy consumption level and cost of hardware with regard to LPWA networks. These challenges are addressed by some research proposals that we summarize in this article. In terms of LPWA network such as LoRa, their significant advantage is their low energy consumption design and low-cost hardware. However, their disadvantage is that the operators should deploy dedicated infrastructure for providing LPWA-related service.
The possible approaches to improve device side energy efficiency for cellular MTC include the following: cooperative relaying, design of energy-efficient signaling and operation, radio resource allocation and packet scheduling strategies, and energy-efficient random access procedure and MAC.
It is a better solution to employ cooperative relaying, since it can be combined with other emerging technologies such as D2D communication, ad hoc networks research results, and LoRa technology.
The radio resource allocation and packet scheduling schemes allows to get energy efficiency while keeping a certain level of QoS; however, it is difficult to design this kind of schemes simultaneously satisfying the QoS provisioning for both human and MTC users.
No matter by which approach, to gain energy efficiency is always with sacrifice of other system performances such as packet delay. Thus, it is important to jointly use the aforementioned approaches, for example, joint design of random access control and radio resource allocation, to seek for a trade-off between energy efficiency and other system performances.
The authors would like to thank Professor Michela Meo, from Politecnico di Torino, for the fruitful discussions about this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- 3GPP, Service requirements for machine-type communications, TS 22.368 V11.0.0 (2010). http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/22368.htm.
- 3GPP, Study on RAN improvements for machine-type communication. TS 37.868 V11.0.0 (2010). http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/37868.htm.
- Ericsson, More than 50 billion connected devices. White paper (2011). http://www.akos-rs.si/files/Telekomunikacije/Digitalna_agenda/Internetni_protokol_Ipv6/More-than-50-billion-connected-devices.pdf More-than-50-billion-connected-devices.pdf.
- MZ Shafiq, L Ji, AX Liu, et al., A first look at cellular machine-to-machine traffic: large scale measurement and characterization. SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev.40(1), 65–76 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- N Sornin, M Luis, T Eirich, T Kramp, Lorawan specification. Technical Report V.1.0, LoRa Alliance (2015). https://www.lora-alliance.org/portals/0/specs/LoRaWANSpecification1R0.pdf.
- LoRa Alliance. https://www.lora-alliance.org. Accessed 14 Oct 2015.
- R Ratasuk, N Mangalvedhe, A Ghosh, B Vejlgaard, in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), 2014 IEEE 80th. Narrowband lte-m system for m2m communication (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- R Lu, X Li, X Liang, X Shen, X Lin, GRS: The green, reliability, and security of emerging machine to machine communications. IEEE Commun. Mag.49(4), 28–35 (2011).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- JM Costa, G Miao, in INFOCOM Workshops. Context-aware machine-to-machine communications (IEEE, 2014), pp. 730–735.Google Scholar
- L Suarez, L Nuaymi, J-M Bonnin, An overview and classification of research approaches in green wireless networks. Eurasip J. Wirel. Commun. Netw.2012:, 1–18 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- C-Y Wang, C-H Ko, H-Y Wei, AV Vasilakos, A voting-based femtocell downlink cell-breathing control mechanism. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 24(1), 85–98 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- CY Ho, C Huang, Energy-saving massive access control and resource allocation schemes for M2M communications in ofdma cellular networks. IEEE Wirel. Commun. Lett.1(3), 209–212 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- T Taleb, A Kunz, Machine type communications in 3GPP networks: potential, challenges, and solutions. IEEE Commun. Mag.50:, 178–184 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- K-C Chen, S-Y Lien, Machine-to-machine communications: technologies and challenges. Ad Hoc Netw.18:, 3–23 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- L Andres, A Luis, AZ Jesus, Is the random access channel of LTE and LTE-A suitable for M2M communications? a survey of alternatives. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor., 4–16 (2014).Google Scholar
- J Poncela, JM Moreno-Roldan, M Aamir, B Alvi, M2M challenges and opportunities in 4G. Wirel. Pers. Commun., 1–14 (2015).Google Scholar
- F Ghavimi, H-H Chen, M2M communications in 3GPP LTE/LTE-A networks: architectures, service requirements, challenges, and applications. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor.17(2), 525–549 (2015).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Y Mehmood, C Görg, M Muehleisen, A Timm-Giel, Mobile M2M communication architectures, upcoming challenges, applications, and future directions. EURASIP EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw.2015:, 1–37 (2015).Google Scholar
- X Wang, AV Vasilakos, M Chen, Y Liu, TT Kwon, A survey of green mobile networks: opportunities and challenges. Mob. Netw. Appl.17(1), 4–20 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- M Ismail, W Zhuang, E Serpedin, K Qaraqe, A survey on green mobile networking: from the perspectives of network operators and mobile users. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor.17(3), 1535–1556 (2015).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- M Yang, Y Li, D Jin, L Zeng, X Wu, AV Vasilakos, Software-defined and virtualized future mobile and wireless networks: a survey. Mob. Netw. Appl.20(1), 4–18 (2015).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- OECD, Machine-to-machine communications: connecting billions of devices. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 192 (2012). doi:10.1787/5k9gsh2gp043-en.
- Y Chen, W Wang, in Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2010-Fall), 2010 IEEE 72nd. Machine-to-machine communication in LTE-A (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
- H Tullberg, P Popovski, et al., in IEEE Communications Magazine. METIS system concept: The shape of 5G to come, (2015). https://www.metis2020.com/wp-content/uploads/publications/IEEE_CommMag_2015_Tullberg_etal_METIS-System-Concept.pdf.
- K Zheng, F Hu, W Wang, et al., Radio resource allocation in LTE-advanced cellular networks with M2M communications. IEEE Commun. Mag.50(7), 184–192 (2012).MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- JN Al-Karaki, AE Kamal, Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: a survey. IEEE Wirel. Commun.11(6), 6–28 (2004).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- LM Borges, FJ Velez, AS Lebres, Survey on the characterization and classification of wireless sensor network applications. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor.16(4), 1860–1890 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- IEEE, 802.16, Machine to machine M2M communication study report. Ts. (2010). http://www.ieee802.org/16/ppc/docs/80216ppc-10_0002r7.doc.
- S Lien, K Chen, Massive access management for QoS guarantees in 3GPP machine-to-machine communications. Commun. Lett., IEEE. 15(3), 311–313 (2011).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- K Zheng, S Ou, J Alonso-Zarate, M Dohler, F Liu, H Zhu, Challenges of massive access in highly dense lte-advanced networks with machine-to-machine communications. IEEE Wirel. Commun.21(3), 12–18 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- M Laner, P Svoboda, N Nikaein, M Rupp, in Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS 2013), Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium On. Traffic models for machine type communications (VDE, 2013), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- I Curran, S Pluta, in Water Event, 2008 6th Institution of Engineering and Technology. Overview of machine to machine and telematics, (2008), pp. 1–33.Google Scholar
- AT&T, Frequently Asked Questions Regarding 2G Sunset (2014). http://www.business.att.com/content/other/2G_Sunset_FAQs_2014_A1.pdf. Accessed 27 Oct 2015.
- M Martsola, T Kiravuo, J Lindqvist, in Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, 2005 2nd International Conference On. Machine to machine communication in cellular networks (IEEE, 2005), p. 6.Google Scholar
- 3GPP, System improvements for machine-type communications. TS 23.888 V11.0.0. (2012).Google Scholar
- CA-H Dohler, (ed.), in Machine-to-machine (M2M) Communications. Chapter 3 - overview of 3GPP machine-type communication standardization (Woodhead PublishingOxford, 47).Google Scholar
- 3GPP, Architecture enhancements to facilitate communications with packet data networks and applications. Technical Report TS 23.682 V 12.4.0. (2015). http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/23682.htm.
- ETSI, Machine-to-machine communications (M2M); functional architecture. TS 102 690, ETSI. (2011).Google Scholar
- IEEE, 802.16p, Machine-to-machine (M2M) system requirements document. Technical Report. IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working Group (2011). http://ieee802.org/16/m2m/\#10_0004.
- A Lo, Y Law, M Jacobsson, A cellular-centric service architecture for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. Wirel. Commun., IEEE. 20(5), 143–151 (2013).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nokia, LTE-M—optimizing LTE for the Internet of Things. White paper (2015). http://networks.nokia.com/sites/default/files/document/nokia_lte-m_-_optimizing_lte_for_the_internet_of_things_white_paper.pdf.
- 3GPP, Cellular system support for ultra-low complexity and low throughput Internet of Things (CIoT). TR 45.820. 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) (2015). http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/45820.htm.
- F Rayal, Shaping cellular IoT connectivity: emerging technologies in wide-area Connectivity (2015). http://www.xonapartners.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Shaping-Cellular-IoT-Connectivity.pdf. Accessed 1 Dec 2015.
- A Dvir, AV Vasilakos, Backpressure-based routing protocol for dtns. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.41(4), 405–406 (2011).Google Scholar
- P Li, S Guo, S Yu, AV Vasilakos, Reliable multicast with pipelined network coding using opportunistic feeding and routing. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.25(12), 3264–3273 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- M Khoshkholgh, Y Zhang, K Shin, V Leung, S Gjessing, in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2015 IEEE. Modeling and characterization of transmission energy consumption in machine-to-machine networks (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2073–2078.Google Scholar
- HS Dhillon, HC Huang, et al., Power-efficient system design for cellular-based machine-to-machine communications. Wirel. Commun. IEEE Trans. 12(11), 5740–5753 (2013).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Q Song, L Nuaymi, X Lagrange, in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2016 IEEE. Evaluation of multiple access strategies with power control error and variable packet length in m2m (IEEE, 2016).Google Scholar
- A Bartoli, M Dohler, J Hernández-Serrano, A Kountouris, D Barthel, in NETWORKING 2011 Workshops. Low-power low-rate goes long-range: the case for secure and cooperative machine-to-machine communications (Springer, 2011), pp. 219–230.Google Scholar
- S Lien, K Chen, Y Lin, Toward ubiquitous massive accesses in 3GPP machine-to-machine communications. IEEE Commun. Mag. (2011).Google Scholar
- XM Zhang, Y Zhang, F Yan, AV Vasilakos, Interference-based topology control algorithm for delay-constrained mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput.14(4), 742–754 (2015).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Y Niu, Y Li, D Jin, L Su, AV Vasilakos, A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5g: opportunities and challenges. Wirel. Netw. 21(8), 2657–2676 (2015).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Y Niu, C Gao, Y Li, L Su, D Jin, AV Vasilakos, Exploiting device-to-device communications in joint scheduling of access and backhaul for mmWave small cells. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.33(10), 2052–2069 (2015).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- T Meng, F Wu, Z Yang, G Chen, AV Vasilakos, Spatial reusability-aware routing in multi-hop wireless networks. IEEE Trans. Comput.65(1), 244–255 (2016).MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- RY Kim, in Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC), 2010 International Conference On. Snoop based group communication scheme in cellular machine-to-machine communications (IEEE, 2010), pp. 380–381.Google Scholar
- C Tu, C Ho, C Huang, in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), 2011 IEEE. Energy-efficient algorithms and evaluations for massive access management in cellular based machine to machine communications (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- A Azari, G Miao, in Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP), 2014 IEEE Global Conference On. Energy efficient MAC for cellular-based M2M communications (IEEE, 2014), pp. 128–132.Google Scholar
- C Pereira, A Aguiar, Towards efficient mobile M2M communications: survey and open challenges. Sensors. 14(10), 19582–19608 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- S Plass, M Berioli, R Hermenier, in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 2012. Concept for an M2M communications infrastructure via airliners (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
- Y Chen, Y Yang, in Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), 2009 IEEE 70th. Cellular based machine to machine communication with un-peer2peer protocol stack (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- 3GPP, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRA); User Equipment (UE) procedures in idle mode. TS 36.304 V11.3.0, 3GPP. (2013). http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36304.htm.
- M Gupta, SC Jha, AT Koc, R Vannithamby, Energy impact of emerging mobile internet applications on lte networks: issues and solutions. IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), 90–97 (2013).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- T Tirronen, A Larmo, J Sachs, B Lindoff, N Wiberg, in Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2012 IEEE. Reducing energy consumption of lte devices for machine-to-machine communication (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1650–1656.Google Scholar
- 3GPP, Study on machine-type communications MTC and other mobile data applications communications enhancements. TS 23.887 V12.03, 3GPP (2013). http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/23887.htm.
- SC Jha, AT Koc, et al., in Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom), 2013 First International Black Sea Conference On. Power saving mechanisms for M2M communication over LTE networks (IEEE, 2013), pp. 102–106.Google Scholar
- H Chao, Y Chen, J Wu, in GLOBECOM Workshops. Power saving for machine to machine communications in cellular networks, (2011), pp. 389–393.Google Scholar
- SC Jha, AT Koc, R Vannithamby, in Communications Workshops (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference On. Device power saving mechanisms for low cost MTC over LTE networks (IEEE, 2014), pp. 412–417.Google Scholar
- AG Gotsis, NT Koutsokeras, P Constantinou, in Vehicular Technology Conference, 2007. VTC-2007 Fall. 2007 IEEE 66th. Radio resource allocation and packet scheduling strategies for single-cell ofdma packet networks (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1847–1851.Google Scholar
- D López-Pérez, X Chu, AV Vasilakos, H Claussen, On distributed and coordinated resource allocation for interference mitigation in self-organizing lte networks. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking (TON). 21(4), 1145–1158 (2013).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- M Ding, D López-Pérez, R Xue, AV Vasilakos, W Chen, in Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference On. Small cell dynamic TDD transmissions in heterogeneous networks (IEEE, 2014), pp. 4881–4887.Google Scholar
- A Aijaz, AH Aghvami, in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2013 IEEE 77th. On radio resource allocation in LTE networks with machine-to-machine communications (IEEE, 2013), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- A Aijaz, M Tshangini, MR Nakhai, et al., Energy-efficient uplink resource allocation in LTE networks with M2M/H2H co-existence under statistical QoS guarantees. Commun., IEEE Trans.62(7), 2353–2365 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Y Zhang, Tree-based resource allocation for periodic cellular M2M communications. Wirel. Commun. Lett., IEEE. 3(6), 621–624 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- GC Madueno, C Stefanovic, P Popovski, Reliable reporting for massive M2M communications with periodic resource pooling. Wirel. Commun. Lett., IEEE. 3(4), 429–432 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Q Song, X Lagrange, L Nuaymi, in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall). An efficient M2M-oriented network-integrated multiple-period polling service in LTE network (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
- AG Gotsis, AS Lioumpas, A Alexiou, in Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2012 IEEE. Evolution of packet scheduling for machine-type communications over LTE: algorithmic design and performance analysis (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1620–1625.Google Scholar
- AS Lioumpas, A Alexiou, in GLOBECOM Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2011 IEEE. Uplink scheduling for machine-to-machine communications in LTE-based cellular systems (IEEE, 2011), pp. 353–357.Google Scholar
- K Ko, M Kim, et al., A novel random access for fixed-location machine-to-machine communications in OFDMA based systems. IEEE Commun. Lett.9:, 1428–1431 (2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DT Wiriaatmadja, KW Choi, Hybrid random access and data transmission protocol for machine-to-machine communications in cellular networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun.14(1), 33–46 (2015).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- B Yang, G Zhu, W Wu, Y Gao, M2M access performance in LTE-A system. Trans. Emerg. Telecommun. Technol.25(1), 3–10 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- M Hasan, E Hossain, D Niyato, Random access for machine-to-machine communication in LTE-advanced networks: issues and approaches. IEEE Commun. Mag.51(6), 86–93 (2013).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- W Xu, G Campbell, in Communications, 1992. ICC’92, Conference record, SUPERCOMM/ICC’92, Discovering a New World of Communications., IEEE International Conference on. A near perfect stable random access protocol for a broadcast channel (IEEE, 1992), pp. 370–374.Google Scholar
- CS Bontu, S Periyalwar, M Pecen, Wireless wide-area networks for Internet of Things: an air interface protocol for IOT and a simultaneous access channel for uplink IOT communication. IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag.9(1), 54–63 (2014).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cisco, Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2014-2019. White paper. Cisco Visual Networking Index (2015).Google Scholar
- oneM, 2M, Functional Architecture. Technical Report TS 0001, V.1.6.1. (2015). http://www.onem2m.org/images/files/deliverables/TS-0001-Functional_Architecture-V1_6_1.pdf.
- R Ratasuk, J Tan, A Ghosh, in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2012 IEEE 75th. Coverage and capacity analysis for machine type communications in LTE (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- 3GPP, Smart grid traffic behaviour discussion. TSG-RAN R2-102340 (2012).Google Scholar
- Health Informatics - PoC Medical Device Communication - part 00101: Guide—guidelines for the use of RF wireless technology (2008).Google Scholar
- R Ratasuk, A Prasad, Z Li, A Ghosh, M Uusitalo, in Intelligence in Next Generation Networks (ICIN), 2015 18th International Conference On. Recent advancements in M2M communications in 4G networks and evolution towards 5G (IEEE, 2015), pp. 52–57.Google Scholar
- D Boswarthick, O Hersent, O Elloumi, M2M Communications : a Systems Approach (Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2012).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- J Chou, Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications using short message services (SMS). Google Patents. EP Patent App. EP20,110,869,333 (2014). http://www.google.com/patents/EP2732565A1?cl=en.
- B Moyer, Low Power, Wide Area: A Survey of Longer-Range IoT Wireless Protocols (2015). http://www.eejournal.com/archives/articles/20150907-lpwa. Accessed 13 Oct 2015.